At the same time, the kingdom is almost inaccessible to outsiders, and its king explains that that is the only way it can remain perfect.
Thus, a good society is attainable only if it excludes the vast majority of humanity. In addition, the jewels and gold that litter the streets of Eldorado activate common greed in Candide, who has displayed little lust for money prior to entering the kingdom. Rather than remain in Eldorado, where the jewels are of no value, Candide elects to return to the flawed outside world where they will make him rich.
For him, the prospect of being wealthy in an imperfect society is preferable to the prospect of being an average man in a perfect society. Does he find a credible solution to the problems and evils he has experienced? In his garden, Candide manages to find a tolerable existence through self-directed improvement and work.
Practical action seems to be the only way to eliminate human suffering. Without any leisure from their toil in the garden, the characters have no time or energy to trade empty words about good and evil.
The characters have finally attained happiness, but their previous experiences remind the reader that misery still reigns in the world outside their garden. The following example will demonstrate this release of energy:.
The terrible contradiction in the two controlling energies of the sentence is apparent: The way Candide makes his request and the nature of the request represent two discordant energies paradoxically situated. Moreover, the energies released in the first part of the sentence all concern Candide; then suddenly a whole series of energies concern the King; the latter series unites with the first only at the end, creating thereby a third energy mercy which goes dancing off into eternal time and space and concerns only indirectly Candide and the King.
A number of such cases might be cited. Their accumulation would build up an effect of limitless energy ill-directed and badly controlled. If this energy is the source of life, life must be a chaotic thing, contradicting itself, destroying itself, but creating itself, too, in an ironical, paradoxical, symbolic way. This limitless energy is not so ill-directed or so badly controlled as it first seems.
Thanks to the saving power of form some order is kept. A factor in this order-keeping form is the amazing ease and grace with which Voltaire shifts from present to imperfect to perfect and back again. In the case we have just cited, he even shoots the energy into the limitless future. This constant regard for timing the released energy is really a method of controlling and ordering it. But he is just as skillful in giving it direction by cleverly manipulating the infinitive, past participle, and present participle.
Hundreds of other cases might be cited. An interesting one occurs in the last chapter where la Vieille uses the infinitive to summarize the action of the whole book:. The role played by infinitives in the release of energy is apparent in this example. They complement the action of modal verbs, and they also designate pure action, that is action in the process of developing with scant reference to time and space.
In their own peculiar way, they generalize or depersonalize action. Furthermore, they give it tremendous variety. At times they occur in veritable phalanxes, for instance:.
Past participles are more useful still. Contrary to the infinitive which marks pure action, they note not only the action itself, but the source of the action, the recipient of the action, the actual condition and value quality that the action possesses. These four possibilities can be seen schematically: These forms occur in great abundance in Candide.
The story is related with the marvelous variety of tense forms so characteristic of Voltaire. Nevertheless, the release of this active energy discloses the vital urge of his characters to live by acting. In a certain sense, it is a guarantee of the characters, since it takes its origin in them.
That is, in the overflow of active action, the impression produced is that of action not only in its initial stage, characterized by disorder and inexperience, but also in its more mature stage, characterized by all the youth, vigor, freshness of Candide himself. One short example of this usage will suffice:. Just a few examples will suffice: Finally, a good example of the active responding to the passive is in The past participle used alone contrasts with the present participle in the same way that passive and active tenses contrast with each other.
When used as an ablative absolute or even as an adjective, it serves as a passive with no great stress on the origin of the action but with great importance attributed to the receiver of the action, to the annihilation of the action, and to the past time of the action. The conte is literally filled with these past participles used in an ablative absolute sense: But there are fully as many cases where past participles have become adjectives, adding a quality to the modified word, whether people or things.
They often occur in sequences with adjectives: Often also they form sequences themselves: Finally, there are examples where they occur in phalanxes, as in the following case:. It would be difficult to give a more perfect picture of total destruction, a condition, incidentally, under which the most violent actions are driving to the annihilation of action.
In one of its aspects the world of Candide is submitting to action, is really absorbing action. This action comes from so many varied, unexpected sources that it seems ill-defined, ill-directed, badly ordered. As it permeates living creatures, it does not add to their life, it tends rather to press the life out of them. It is cosmic energy which, in its uncontrolled, undirected aspects, kills life. Left to itself, it could easily wipe out the universe, or at least it could reduce life to unendurable torture.
It is not, of course, left to itself. There is a whole array of them in Candide. The active, creative quality of these participles is obvious in When so used it adds a condition, a qualification, as well as a continuation of action. This usage is extended and it, too, becomes an adjective: But the vast majority of these present participles push the action outward, often introducing additional action.
They represent the effort of the submerged universe to meet the energetic chaos of destruction with personal, willful, creative energy. Sometimes they, too, occur in sequences of adjectives: At other times, they counterbalance in the same sentence the cumulative effect of dead past participles: Or they add vitality to a still scene: And there is a final case where the present participle serves to prevent life from totally disappearing:.
Thus Candide's world is a world of action, varied, tense, contradictory, and paradoxical. It springs from many unknown sources and submerges those upon whom it falls; with constant pounding it beats out life.
Whether it comes from forces in nature or in man-made institutions, it crushes and exasperates. Somehow one gets the impression that action produces energy and energy begets force and force is an evil thing.
It must be met by another force which springs from another energy derived from counteraction. For the outside action pressing upon the individual brings forth a response which is another action. It leaves behind the dead, past, traditional action, the absorbed evil action. It pushes forward, young, vigorous, eager, inexperienced, but confident that it can master by struggle, effort, and work the deadly past and the uncertain future.
Creation in Candide is certainly the answer to universal destruction. In this creative action, struggling to overcome destructive action, adverbs and adjectives also play their role. They characterize the actors, the objects involved, and the action. At the same time, they bestow value judgment on the phenomena. In their own powerful way, they bestow character, that is to say, form to Candide's struggling universe; and they give exasperated testimony that as long as the human mind can attribute value judgments to the phenomena of existence life will go on.
There is in Candide an extraordinary tendency to attach adjectives to nouns as if the adjectival quality were a guarantee for the existence of the object. Many of them are colorless: Others contribute a trait of character: Still others add by their incongruity a touch of irony: This use of adjectives to characterize is in fact carried to an extreme. There are many instances where these adjectives are massed in phalanx, as in This massing very often occurs in Voltaire.
This massing, however, is no more impressive than the adjective's variety when singly used, and no more impressive than its contrast with opposing adjectives or its paradox with the nouns or the situation it qualifies. Surely the world of Candide is a world of chaos, a world of mutually consuming qualities, ironically and paradoxically qualified. It is not predominantly good nor bad—good in its potentialities, perhaps, bad in its actualities, certainly, and very full of strife, energy, effort.
There is a type of adjective which conveys interpretation much better than the mass of qualifying adjectives we have just mentioned. Because of his capacity to think he is living the best of all worlds, this philosophical groundwork begins to crumble slowly and it is only at this point that Candide becomes a truly developed character. In order to develop, a character must change the way he sees his world. For this essay you can argue either way; you can say that Candide did eventually develop and become a rounded as opposed to flat character or that he never did—that he simply moved from one optimistic way of living to another.
If you are still looking for more insights about Candide, particularly in terms of how the work relates to the ideas of the Enlightenment,. This list of important quotations from Candide by Voltaire will help you work with the essay topics and thesis statements above by allowing you to support your claims. All of the important quotes from Candide listed here correspond, at least in some way, to the paper topics above and by themselves can give you great ideas for an essay by offering quotes about other themes, symbols, imagery, and motifs than those already mentioned.
All quotes contain page numbers as well. Look at the bottom of the page to identify which edition of Candide they are referring to. Pangloss and his V. Until now, I have not found in the whole inhabited earth…anything but miserable people.
Candide Thesis Statements and Important Quotes.
Free candide papers, essays, and research papers. Women in Voltaire’s Candide - In Candide Voltaire discusses the exploitation of the female race in the .
Essays and criticism on Voltaire's Candide - Critical Essays.
Free Essay: Voltaires's Candide In Voltaires?s Candide, the main character, Candide, fails to live happily because he is looking outside of himself and his. Candide essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Candide.
Free Essay: Candide is a humorous, far-fetched story satirizing the optimism promoted by the philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment. Voltaire uses satire. Free Essay: Successful Use of Satire in Voltaire's Candide Voltaire's Candide is the story of how one man's adventures affect his philosophy on life. Candide.