And by definition, there is more uncertainty about risks and benefits in early-phase research than in later research. Depending on the particulars of a study, research risks might be trivial or serious, might cause transient discomfort or long-term changes. Risks can be physical death, disability, infection , psychological depression, anxiety , economic job loss , or social for example, discrimination or stigma from participating in a certain trial. Has everything been done to minimize the risks and inconvenience to research subjects, to maximize the potential benefits, and to determine that the potential benefits to individuals and society are proportionate to, or outweigh, the risks?
Research volunteers often receive some health services and benefits in the course of participating, yet the purpose of clinical research is not to provide health services. To minimize potential conflicts of interest and make sure a study is ethically acceptable before it even starts, an independent review panel with no vested interest in the particular study should review the proposal and ask important questions, including: Are those conducting the trial sufficiently free of bias?
Is the study doing all it can to protect research volunteers? Has the trial been ethically designed and is the risk—benefit ratio favorable? In the United States, independent evaluation of research projects is done through granting agencies, local institutional review boards IRBs , and data and safety monitoring boards.
These groups also monitor a study while it is ongoing. For research to be ethical, most agree that individuals should make their own decision about whether they want to participate or continue participating in research.
This is done through a process of informed consent in which individuals 1 are accurately informed of the purpose, methods, risks, benefits, and alternatives to the research, 2 understand this information and how it relates to their own clinical situation or interests, and 3 make a voluntary decision about whether to participate. Individuals should be treated with respect from the time they are approached for possible participation—even if they refuse enrollment in a study—throughout their participation and after their participation ends.
Copy on this website is based largely on this article, on an interview with Dr. Grady, and on Dr. Wendler heads the Unit on Vulnerable Populations.
Social and clinical value. Respect for potential and enrolled subjects. PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader. This external link is provided for your convenience to offer additional information. The NIH Clinical Center is not responsible for the availability, content or accuracy of this external site. The NIH Clinical Center does not endorse, authorize or guarantee the sponsors, information, products or services described or offered at this external site.
There are two standards that are applied in order to help protect the privacy of research participants. Almost all research guarantees the participants confidentiality -- they are assured that identifying information will not be made available to anyone who is not directly involved in the study. The stricter standard is the principle of anonymity which essentially means that the participant will remain anonymous throughout the study -- even to the researchers themselves. Clearly, the anonymity standard is a stronger guarantee of privacy, but it is sometimes difficult to accomplish, especially in situations where participants have to be measured at multiple time points e.
Increasingly, researchers have had to deal with the ethical issue of a person's right to service. Good research practice often requires the use of a no-treatment control group -- a group of participants who do not get the treatment or program that is being studied. But when that treatment or program may have beneficial effects, persons assigned to the no-treatment control may feel their rights to equal access to services are being curtailed.
Even when clear ethical standards and principles exist, there will be times when the need to do accurate research runs up against the rights of potential participants.
No set of standards can possibly anticipate every ethical circumstance. Furthermore, there needs to be a procedure that assures that researchers will consider all relevant ethical issues in formulating research plans. To address such needs most institutions and organizations have formulated an Institutional Review Board IRB , a panel of persons who reviews grant proposals with respect to ethical implications and decides whether additional actions need to be taken to assure the safety and rights of participants.
University Press Scholarship Online. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search my Subject Specializations: Classical, Early, and Medieval Plays and Playwrights: Classical, Early, and Medieval Poetry and Poets: Classical, Early, and Medieval Prose and Writers: Classical, Early, and Medieval World History:
According to Bryman and Bell () the following ten points represent the most important principles related to ethical considerations in dissertations: Research participants should not be subjected to harm in any ways whatsoever. Respect for the dignity of research participants should be prioritised.
Ethics in Research We are going through a time of profound change in our understanding of the ethics of applied social research. From the time immediately after World War II until the early s, there was a gradually developing consensus about the key ethical principles that should underlie the .
Research methodology ethical issues in research an assignment 1. IDENTIFY AND EXPLAIN ANY 6 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN RESEARCH. Keywords: NASW Code of Ethics, IRB, human subjects protection, quantitative research, qualitative research, mixed-methods research, research design, experimental design, quasi-experimental design Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the .
Ethics should be applied on all stages of research, such as planning, conducting and evaluating a research project.. The first thing to do before designing a study is to consider the potential cost and benefits of the research. Finally, education in research ethics should be able to help researchers grapple with the ethical dilemmas they are likely to encounter by introducing them to important concepts, tools, principles, and methods that can be useful in resolving these dilemmas.