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10th Amendment Essay

Fourth amendment summary paper

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How does the 4th amendment affect us today


Billboards, as a very public example of commercial speech, are restricted in ways that a person standing on a street under a billboard talking to her friend is not. Advertising is indeed protected by the First Amendment of the U. Moreover, even in federal-level litigation, the amount in controversy required for most suits means that many litigants lack standing to proceed in a federal court, much less have a jury trial.

What this amendment demonstrates is that the process for amending the Constitution has failed to keep up with the changes that are warranted by that process. To work around the fact that the modern court system would grind to a halt if every person with a twenty dollar dispute were entitled to a jury trial, the Courts have interpreted this amendment to mean that people are entitled to a jury trial if they would have been entitled to one under the common law.

However, that is clearly not adhering to the…… [Read More]. Jehovah's Witnesses are a good example of a religious entity that claims the right the First Amendment freedom of religion clauses.

Jehovah's Witnesses may act as a thorn in many families across America, however, they have been the root cause of much of our freedom of religion laws. Jehovah's Witnesses brought many cases of religion to the court system in the s and s. Before then, the court system handled very few court cases regarding freedom of speech and freedom of religion. These cases formed the foundation of the First Amendment protection of all citizens. The Court has attempted to create and implement a system for determining church and state decisions.

This is accomplished with a three-part test for laws dealing with religious establishment. The determination if the law is constitutional is this: It should not advance or inhibit religion. Finally, it cannot foster…… [Read More]. First Amendment and Television The subject of television and censorship has long been an issue of heated debates across the country.

On June 8, James Madison introduced his version of the speech and press clauses in the House of Representatives, stating, "The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments; and the freedom of the press, as one of the great bulwarks of liberty, shall be inviolable" Freedom pp. The special committee rewrote the language somewhat, adding other provisions from Madison's draft,…… [Read More].

The freedom of speech has also come under attack, most recently when a reporter was jailed for refusing to expose her sources. The amendment mentions "free exercise" of the right to say what one wishes or print what one wishes; however, if a person was to publicly endorse the assassination of the President, that person would be quickly arrested and most likely thrown in jail, an act that stands in deep conflict with the idea of "free exercise.

The National Rifle Association NRA highly endorses the 2nd Amendment and goes to great lengths to lobby Congress for less restrictive measures related to owning specific kinds of firearms, such as machine guns, AK's and other high-powered weapons. With handguns, a good number of legal efforts in recent years…… [Read More]. With their closely contested decision in the case of Citizens United v.

FEC, the high court's conservative members have effectively shattered existing precedent regarding the ability of corporations to channel shareholder funds to political campaigns. In their effort to protect the duly granted right of individuals to contribute money as a form of political speech and expression, the justices in the majority have effectively opened a Pandora's box of unintended consequences. By extending the rights held by individual citizens of this nation to corporate conglomerates and multinational entities, the Roberts court has redefined the menace of judicial activism once…… [Read More].

Hobby Lobby and First Amendment. On the Hobby Lobby case, the First Amendment was challenged about whether it protected the religious beliefs of an employer when it comes to the decision not to pay for insurance meant for contraceptives. Phelps case was also related to religious picketing where the issue of sidewalk picketing was under the scrutiny of whether it was outrageous.

The WBC church had held a picketing in a funeral and was found guilty of saying outrageous comments in a funeral. However, the Supreme Court of United States in an decision argued that the church was constitutionally protected to say whatever they wanted as far as they did not affect the ceremony.

It was established that they had avoided the ceremony and had not been involved directly in stopping the ceremony Zipursky, First Amendment and Broadcasting Content.

First Amendment rights are not absolute, particularly in regards to advertising. For example, there has been a great deal of pressure to regulate advertising directed at children that promotes unhealthy junk food. Called the Central Hudson test, it says that such speech must be truthful and not 'actually or inherently misleading'" and it has been argued that much of commercial advertising targeting children takes advantage of a credulous consumer's inability to tell the difference between truth and fiction Bittman, , par.

In this instance, however, the objections raised to our new advertising campaign are not targeted at children. Rather, the concern is merely that children may see inappropriate material, even if it is not intended that they purchase the product. In the past, the U. Supreme Court has allowed censorship of certain types…… [Read More].

Fourth Amendment Protection The Homeless. Yet, such a police officer would not be able to summarily search or seize on the premises of a regular home. The homeless person's effects are; therefore, protected from unlawful search and seizure. The Problem with Pretext. Greenhalgh, and Mark J.

Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution. It is interesting to note that members of Congress would introduce this bill every year for 41 years, with exactly the same wording, until it finally passed Linder. One big step in the process were the states in the West who allowed women to vote. In , Wyoming joined the union, and women had been voting there for many years. It is also interesting to note that it was the Senator from a western state, California, who first introduced the bill in Kobach.

In , Theodore oosevelt, running for the Bull Moose Party, included women's voting rights in his party platform, which brought more positive attention to the matter. Thousands of women worked throughout that time to help gain support and understanding…… [Read More].

Personhood Amendment in Mississippi Judith Jarvis Thomson's essay "A Defense of Abortion" and the proposed Mississippi Constitutional Amendment In Mississippi, a bill that advocated an extreme position on abortion rights was submitted to voters. It was ultimately rejected, despite the fact that Mississippi is a very conservative state. The constitutional amendment would have declared a fertilized human egg to be a legal person, not only equating abortion with murder under the law, but also making certain forms of birth control illegal Eckholm It would have made using birth control, including IUDs and morning-after pills, which operate by detaching the fertilized embryo from the mother's womb, a legal for of murder.

Previous regulations of abortion placed restrictions upon when and where women could get abortions, or created parental consent laws. This amendment simply stated when life began: Even embryos in fertility clinics could be destroyed, according to the…… [Read More].

Th Amendment to the U. Constitution "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Constitution" Abraham Lincoln's "Emancipation Proclamation" stated "that all person's held as slaves' within the rebellious states 'are, and henceforward shall be free. However, Lincoln's support of, and the adoption of the 13th amendment in , seems to prove this wrong; Lincoln's real motivation was the end of slavery in the United States.

But Lincoln issued his "Emancipation Proclamation" in the middle of a war, using his emergency war powers, and it was limited…… [Read More]. Implication of the Amendments. Constitutional Amendments Effective strategies after the 13th and 14th amendments The 13th amendment to the constitution was widely welcome by many Americans and the world at large as it gave the surety of freedom from slavery in the legal standing of it.

The most famous and important section of the Declaration of Independence read that "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable ights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

Further, the 14th amendment came into place to entrench and ensure the equality among the Americans Hole. It was one of the…… [Read More]. Fourth Amendment Stipulates That No.

The government was triggered for the sake of the people. People had honor and dignity. Given the ambitions of man and man's love for power, it is all too easy for man to rise to positions of power and dominate others. The Fourth Amendment is important in that it protects the honor and asserts the significance of even the 'least' individual in the country.

In this way, the Fourth Amendment prevents the situation of a Fuhrer or Third Reich happening on this soil since certain safeguards are put into place that have to be kept at all costs. Further indications of the importance of this Amendment can also be seen from the instance when Jentick, an Earl of Camden, was indicted for attacking both government polices and the monarch. His private papers were ruffled and…… [Read More].

Fourth Amendment to the United. In order to enforce the revenue laws, English authorities made use of writs of assistance, which were general warrants authorizing the bearer to enter any house or other place to search for and seize "prohibited and uncustomed" goods, and commanding all subjects to assist in these endeavors.

When, upon the death of George II in , the authorities were required to obtain the issuance of new writs, James Otis, who attacked such writs on libertarian grounds and who asserted the invalidity of the authorizing statutes because they conflicted with English constitutionalism, led opposition. Otis lost and the writs were issued and utilized, but his arguments were much cited in the colonies not only on the immediate subject but also with regard to judicial review. Fourth Amendment and Court Jurisdiction Based on.

Constitution citizens have a right to 'be secure in their persons'. At Stevens, dissenting LectLaw, The definition implies that people cannot be detained or intruded upon by police or other law enforcement without a reasonable cause. It is a protection to acknowledge a citizen's rights under a higher authority or power that they must submit to. The Constitutional intent may be at odds with law enforcement because it protects the people by prohibiting the law to intrude even if the person s is a known criminal unless there is a reason Wolfish, U.

At Stevens, dissenting Lect Law, For law enforcement to seize or detain a citizen there must be a reasonable cause. There are many court cases that have precedent…… [Read More]. The notion of fairness due process is evident throughout a criminal proceeding. Because one is presumed innocent, most accused are allowed to go free on bail while awaiting trial. This is directly based on the fact that the accused is presumed innocent and therefore cannot have their liberty removed without being found guilty of a crime.

Due process is also the root of the discovery rules in the United States. Only by having this information revealed, can a person adequately prepare to defend themselves against either a civil or criminal allegation. In other words, it is only fair. If one is not aware of the specific allegations and proposed evidence, one cannot possibly prepare an adequate defense.

The impact of the 14th Amendment also comes into play when applied to who can…… [Read More]. Gun Control and First Amendment. It would also be highly recommended that there are designated buffer zones between the convention and any designated First Amendment Zones. Additionally, these zones must be away from any other public areas.

If they are too close to public areas, like malls, they may inadvertently disrupt the flow of the public and endanger passersby. There are also recommendations for general policy of the possible disruption of protest groups at the DNC event. If officers were to commence in disrupting the protest groups, it would be absolutely necessary to show they were acting in accordance with the misdemeanor violation of Section Essentially, this would mean that officers would have to prove more than three individuals were acting in a way to disturb the peace, rather than to peacefully assemble.

It is true, "no actual breach of peace needs to take place" Unlawful Assembly Dispersal Order. Consequences of Police Violating the 4th Amendment. Fourth Amendment Violations 4th Amendment Violations Fourth Amendment Violations and Recourse The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States provides for "the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures…," but says nothing about what a court should do if those rights are violated.

Amendment 4" The Supreme Court of the United States has developed what is known as the "Exclusionary Rule," which bars any evidence obtained through an unconstitutional search from trial against the defendant. But his is not the only recourse for those who have been the victims of unconstitutional searches and seizures. The court has also decided that in certain cases, the victims may sue the authorities for damages in civil court.

It was in , during the case of Mapp v. Ohio where the Supreme Court set the precedent that any…… [Read More]. The 10th amendment is "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people" Mcpherson, , p.

When seeing how these two laws work not in conflict of each other, but together, it can be hard…… [Read More]. Constitution Laws regarding the use and safety of weapons in the United States date back to , when Georgia's ban on handguns was ruled unconstitutional. Subsequent legislation has been scrutinized by courts -- including the High Court -- and in numerous cases the rulings have supported a citizens' right to keep and bear arms except in certain cases.

In District of Columbia v. Heller, the last decision offered by the Supreme Court in , a law banning handguns was struck down based on the Second Amendment. How this ruling will ultimately affect states and local governments remains to be seen, but this paper carefully reviews opinions from the majority and minority on the Court. This paper also presents what the Court considers enumerated rights and how the gun lobby might be impacted by the ruling -- as well as those advocating for gun safety.

Scholarly, peer-reviewed…… [Read More]. Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel Applies to. Sixth Amendment right to counsel applies to everyone, but it can be difficult to ensure that it is correctly applied to defendants with disabilities. That has led to major problems, and has been addressed by several cases, including Faretta v. California , McKaskle v. Wiggins , Godinez v. Moran , and Indiana v. These cases showcased the issue that the standard for competency to stand trial was linked to the standard for competency to represent oneself.

While that seems to make perfect sense, it is actually quite harmful to people who have disabilities, because they may not be able to correctly represent themselves and cannot always be held to the same standards that would be seen with people who do not suffer from any kind of disability. The right to counsel is highly important, because not having counsel can make it very difficult for a defendant to assert…… [Read More].

Amendment The Sixth Amendment to the U. Constitution offers a set of protections from a potentially overbearing criminal justice system. The amendment reads as: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense[footnoteRef: Cornell University Law School ] The law protects individuals from allegations of criminal conduct that are false by providing them a public trial by their peers.

The concept of a jury trial is not a new phenomenon and has its roots that date back to…… [Read More]. Analyzing the Forth Amendment. Like most fields in U. Broadly, it was created for limiting governmental powers and their capacity of enforcing legal actions upon citizens 4th Amendment - constitution -- Laws.

Amendment IV was implemented in immediate reaction to the historical writ of assistance's abuse. This writ was a sort of general governmental search warrant employed in the American evolution's era. Amendment IV…… [Read More]. Enactment of the 19th Amendment XIX. Amendment XIX Enactment of Amendment XIX and its contribution to the achievement of equal female rights The enactment of the 19th amendment empowered women on many fronts.

They were allowed to vote and consequently seized the opportunity to influence political decisions. The enactment saw the legalization of contraception and even abortion. There was economic empowerment too in the process. The more common availability of reproductive services and education doors increasingly opening up, more women enrolled in education institutions sought higher education.

These developments also ushered in an era in which women began to occupy sensitive professional positions in the society. The amendment aimed at giving hope to all women. African-American women sought to link suffrage to race and gender across the country; so as to make sure that the benefits were not just paper-based policies, but practical processes for actual empowerment. Indeed, the African-American women believed that taking part in…… [Read More].

First Amendment including kind cases The First Amendment is imbued with a degree of preeminence that supersedes virtually all other amendments of the United States Constitution, largely because it was the first of many. As such, its importance to the country and to protecting the rights of its citizens is largely self evident.

Perhaps one of the most cogent testimonies to this fact is the numerous times this amendment has been cited in litigation enacted in this country. These many cases allude to the notion that the rights guaranteed by the First Amendment, which are stratified in accordance to religion, freedom of speech, and lawful, peaceable assemblage, are vital to some of the most fundamental principles upon which the country was founded.

An examination of the most salient of these court cases, as well as of the various components of this amendment, largely indicates the veracity of the preceding statements. Home Topics Government Amendment Essays. A look at the Bill of Rights: Protecting the rights of Americans. A companion to the United States Constitution and its amendments.

The Bill of Rights: Politics, religion, and the quest for justice. An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Summaries of leading cases on the Constitution 14th ed. The complete idiot's guide to the U. Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court of the United States. A companion to the United States Constitution and its amendments 5th ed.

Amendments 14 15 and 19 View Full Essay. Works Cited Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Notes for the Underground. Cornell University Law School. Amendment One will do more harm than good. There can be very little to disagree with Powell about why should hand guns be allowed in society when they have caused so much death within a society. However, Levinson also argues that it may be prudent to suggest that times have changed then the outmoded arguments are just that why not allow citizens to have weapons to protect their homes from others who have weapons illegally.

Sadly within this argument there can be no ending, it is always a case of stipulating where the clarification of where gun control stops. Move the law once and it will change again and again. An Afro- Americanist reconsideration" we can see the argument that the debate that has been argued for decades will never end. The second Amendment is a controversial act that will never be finalised until a case illustrates the need for a change. This will probably never happen for the second amendment.

However as the debate for gun control rages so to will the debate over the amendment which has been fought and discussed not only in the courts but also in the press and the senate. Can there be an amendment to the militia term or will it remain just so?

If a change happens how it affect the community and the laws? In this the laws will be more severe, the penalties for murder and death will have to be extreme and severe, there will be more guns on the streets and probably a moving of the goal posts on what guns are carried.

From hand guns to semi-automatic and finally to fully automatic weapons. Jeff Cooper's Commentaries Vol. Can Gun Control Work? The Development of the American Experience. References Cornell University Law School. Available online at http: Works Cited Current, Richard. The Woman and her Work. Columbine High School Incident. Accessed 5 October Works Cited Abrams, Jim. House Ok's right to protect sources: White House rips media shield bill.

Schwarzenegger Approves Condor Protection Bill. From Trafficking to Treatment," Hamilton Books, Trials of the First Amendment. The Supreme Court and Mass Media: Selected Cases, Summaries, and Analyses. Retrieved April 4, , from Web site: Understanding the 6th Amendment. Works Cited Bryce, Jenny. Law, Alcohol, and Order: Perspectives on National Prohibition. Federalism and Constitutional Change. Works Cited 1st Amendment.

Accessed 2 July Works Cited No author. Food and Drug Administration. Department of Health and Human Services. Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Guarantees of States' Rights? Effects of straw mulch on soil nitrate dynamics, weeds, yield and soil erosion in organically grown potatoes. Field Crop Research, Effect of composts or vermicomposts on sorghum growth and micorrhizal colonization. African Journal of Biotechnology. Control of Phytophtora root and crown rot of bell pepper with composts and soil amendments in greenhouse.

Effect of compost amendment or straw mulch on potato early dying disease. Everything you think you know about the collapse of the Soviet Union was wrong. Retrieved September 4, at http: Retrieved September 4, At http: References Hustler Magazine v. Retrieved 7 July , from http: Our Own Worst Enemy: Analyzing the stated language of the Fourth Amendment there is not an explicit definition of what constitutes an unreasonable search and seizure; only a generalized guarantee of protection against government intrusion.

Prior to the Olmstead case in the Court had not commented substantively into Fourth amendment matters, the exception being Weeks v. In which the "the exclusionary rule was born; the exclusionary rule forbids the use of illegally obtained evidence in a criminal trial" Fourth Amendment summaries. The Court in Olmstead looked to more specifically identify the precise meaning of the reasonableness of search and seizure by government authorities. The case which involved "wiretaps of the basement of Olmstead's building where he maintained an office and in the streets near his home" Oyez.

The Court's decision upholding a lower court conviction of Olmstead on bootlegging charges must be placed in the context of the nation's prohibition of alcohol and the government's attempts to enforce the 18th Amendment. As such the Court's opinion reflects a need for officers to utilize means necessary to collect "evidence of a conspiracy to violate the Prohibition Act" Cornell University Law School.

The majority opinion reads the Fourth Amendment narrowly across several key areas. First, the wiretapping of "the basement of a large office building and on public streets" Cornell University Law School. Here the Court articulates a standard that a search is reasonable provided it does not "refer to an actual physical examination of one's person, papers, tangible material effects, or home" Oyez.

Because none of Olmstead's personal property had been intruded upon, no unreasonable search had been committed. Second, the Court reasoned that wiretapping did not constitute a search because the protection of "the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects" does not include the protection of "their conversations" Oyez.

Lastly, "the wiretaps did not violate the Fourth Amendment because there had been no physical intrusion" Law. In identifying these markers, the Court's narrow constriction of the reading of the Fourth Amendment indicates the "interest of liberty will not justify enlarging. A Reasonable Search for Constitutional Protection. Landmark Supreme Court Case. The Evolution of the Fourth Amendment.

Criminal Justice in America. Amending the Amendments View Full Essay. Fortunately, in the U. Because of the religious diversity that this country gathers, we are exposed to all viewpoints of a cause, and this, in turn, allows us to use our own judgments to make decisions. In many aspects, the First Amendment to the Constitution has contributed greatly to the nation; indeed, this law has been the cause of many great events. This law also strengthens national pride by advocating for freedom.

The First Amendment not only strengthens the power of our country, but also holds great importance in human and religious rights. Make it worth watching. Which of your works would you like to tell your friends about?

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Argumentative Essay: Gun Control Violates The Second Amendment of the Constitution - Civilian ownership of firearms has for more than two hundred years been the very cornerstone upon which the liberty of the public has been supported.

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Mar 28,  · The Equal Rights Amendment Essay What could be more important than the equality of rights for all American citizens? Women have tried without success for 80 years to be acknowledged as equals in our Constitution through an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).

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