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Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches

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❶Not only will I be using this in this class, but I will pull it out for proposal and dissertation, and likely recommend it to my future students. Clarifying case study research:

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We begin with an overview of the history and evolution of case study research, followed by a discussion of the methodological and philosophical variations found within case study designs.

We end with a summary of the common characteristics of case study research and a table that brings together the fundamental elements that we found common in all case study approaches to research. Sociologists and anthropologists investigated people's lives, experiences, and how they understood the social and cultural context of their world, with the aim of gaining insight into how individuals interpreted and attributed meaning to their experiences and constructed their worlds JOHANSSON, ; SIMONS, Such investigations were conducted in the natural setting of those experiences with results presented descriptively or as a narrative MERRIAM, With the emergence and dominance of positivism in science in the late s and s, quantitative methods became a popular focus for the social sciences.

As a result, surveys, experiments, and statistical methods anchored in quantitative approaches were favored and considered more rigorous than qualitative designs JOHANSSON, The dominance of research using experimental designs continued through the s and s with quantitative empirical results considered to be gold standard evidence. Case studies continued to be used during this time, however usually as a method within quantitative studies or referred to as descriptive research to study a specific phenomenon MERRIAM, This context led to a philosophical division in research approaches: Here, anthropologists practiced their methods on university cultures or by conducting lengthy case studies involving field-based observations of groups with the aim of understanding their social and cultural lives CRESWELL et al.

According to JOHANSSON , Robert YIN followed this progress, and drawing on scientific approaches to research gained from his background in the social sciences, applied experimental logic to naturalistic inquiry, and blended this with qualitative methods, further bridging the methodological gap and strengthening the methodological quality of case study research. He presented a structured process for undertaking case study research where formal propositions or theories guide the research process and are tested as part of the outcome, highlighting his realist approach to qualitative case study research.

While still qualitative and inductive, it was deterministic in nature with an emphasis on cause and effect, testing theories, and an apprehension of the truth BROWN, ; YIN, The integration of formal, statistical, and narrative methods in a single study, combined with the use of empirical methods for case selection and causal inference, demonstrated the versatility of case study design and made a significant contribution to its methodological evolution ibid.

The continued use of case study to understand the complexities of institutions, practices, processes, and relations in politics, has demonstrated the utility of case study for researching complex issues, and testing causal mechanisms that can be applied across varied disciplines.

Methods were required that could be used to explore factors such as participants' perspectives and the influence of socio-political contexts on curriculum successes and failures SIMONS, Development of case study research in education, focused on the need to determine the impact of educational programs and provide relevant evidence for policy and practice decisions that supported social and educational change in the United Kingdom and the United States ibid.

STAKE , an educational psychologist with an interest in developing program evaluation methods, used a constructivist orientation to case study. This resulted in placing more emphasis on inductive exploration, discovery, and holistic analysis that was presented in thick descriptions of the case.

Similar to STAKE , , MERRIAM , was not as structured in her approach as YIN , but promoted the use of a theoretical framework or research questions to guide the case study and organized, systematic data collection to manage the process of inquiry. Simple in theory yet complex in nature, the planning, preparation and execution of case study research has developed to a point where the continued application of case study research across a number of professions particularly education, health, and social sciences, has provided a unique platform for credible research endeavors.

Key contributors to case study research and major contextual influences on its evolution are included. As the figure highlights, early case studies were conducted in the social sciences. With the dominance of logical positivism from the 's through to the 's and 's case study methodology was viewed with skepticism and criticism.

The development of grounded theory in the 's led to a resurgence in case study research, with its application in the social sciences, education, and the humanities. Over the last 50 years, case study has been re-established as a credible, valid research design that facilitates the exploration of complex issues. While over time the contributions of researchers from varied disciplines have helped to develop and strengthen case study research, the variety of disciplinary backgrounds has also added complexity, particularly around how case study research is defined, described, and applied in practice.

In the sections that follow, the nature of this complexity in explored. There are a number of definitions and descriptions presented across the literature, which can create confusion when attempting to understand case study research. YIN's two-part definition focuses on the scope, process, and methodological characteristics of case study research, emphasizing the nature of inquiry as being empirical, and the importance of context to the case. On the other hand, STAKE takes a more flexible stance and while concerned with rigor in the processes, maintains a focus on what is studied the case rather than how it is studied the method.

For STAKE case study research is "the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances" p. These varied definitions stem from the researchers' differing approaches to developing case study methodology and often reflect the elements they emphasize as central to their designs. The diversity of approaches subsequently adds diversity to definition and description.

A further challenge to understanding case study research relates to it being referred to and used as both a methodology and a method. MILLS distinguishes methods as procedures and techniques employed in the study, while methodology is the lens through which the researcher views and makes decisions about the study.

The ambiguity about case study being either or both a methodology and method, is compounded by the terminology used in discussions about case study. Often these terms are used interchangeably without definitional clarity. For example, YIN discusses case study research and in the context of presenting case study, refers to it as a research method while emphasizing the procedures used.

He does not use the terms methodology or strategy. This mixed use of terminology is confusing given the definitional separations between methodology and methods and the varied application of case study in research endeavors. This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach.

Exploring the philosophical orientation of case study research and variations in different case study approaches can help to clarify these differences, and promote a better understanding of how to apply these principles in practice.

Many methodologies are aligned with specific philosophical positions that guide the research process. Philosophically, case study research can be orientated from a realist or positivist perspective where the researcher holds the view that there is one single reality, which is independent of the individual and can be apprehended, studied and measured, through to a relativist or interpretivist perspective.

In the context of healthcare research and specifically nursing, LUCK et al. Qualitative paradigms are broad and can encompass exploratory, explanatory, interpretive, or descriptive aims. Each methodology is unique in approach depending on the ontological and epistemological stance, however all stem from the motivation to explore, seek understanding, and establish the meaning of experiences from the perspective of those involved ibid.

These attributes are commonly exemplified in case study research. Like other forms of qualitative research, the researcher will seek to explore, understand and present the participants' perspectives and get close to them in their natural setting CRESWELL, Interaction between participants and the researcher is required to generate data, which is an indication of the researcher's level of connection to and being immersed in the field.

Because of this, constructivism and interpretivism commonly permeate the implementation of this research design. The researcher's perceptions and interpretations become part of the research and as a result, a subjective and interpretive orientation flows throughout the inquiry CRESWELL, In choosing a methodological position, careful consideration of the different case study approaches is required to determine the design that best addresses the aim of the study, and that aligns with the researcher's worldview.

Examples are provided of how these researchers' philosophical orientation influences the application of case study in practice. YIN conceptualizes case study research as a form of social science.

Post-positivism is evident in how he defines "case study as a form of empirical inquiry" p. YIN himself describes his approach to case study as using a "realist perspective" p.

The goal of a postpositivist researcher is to use science as a way to apprehend the nature of reality while understanding that all measurement is imperfect.

Therefore, emphasis is placed on using multiple methods with triangulation to circumvent errors and understand what is happening in reality as close as possible to the "truth" LINCOLN et al. The researcher will often categorize qualitative data to create quantitative data that can then be analyzed using statistical methods. Validity of research results are verified through the scrutiny of others and, as such, adherence to mechanisms that ensure rigor in data collection and analysis is vital.

Furthermore, postpositivists accept that everyone is inherently biased in worldviews, which ultimately influence how the methods used are deployed. Interaction with research subjects therefore needs to be minimized and subjectivity managed to avoid biasing the results ibid.

Embedded within YIN's case study design are the hallmarks of a postpositivist approach to research: While objectivity is a goal, YIN also recognizes the descriptive and interpretive elements of case study.

According to YIN what makes case study research distinct from experimental studies is the case study is investigated in context, examined in its "real world setting" p. Selection of cases is based on the purpose of the research and related to the theoretical propositions about the topic of interest. YIN suggests careful screening in the selection of cases to ensure specific relevance to the issues of interest and the use of replication logic: Precision, process, and practicality are core attributes of YIN's approach to case study.

Design features are sequentially structured and motivated by empirical application. This positioning reflects the axiology of postpositivism where maintaining intellectual honesty, managing bias, and acknowledging limitations, coupled with meticulous data collection and accurate reporting are critical elements in the conduct of research KILLAM, ; YIN, MERRIAM maintains a constructivist approach to case study research, whereby the researcher assumes that reality is constructed intersubjectively through meanings and understandings developed socially and experientially.

Like YIN , MERRIAM , asserts that when information is plentiful and concepts abstract, it is important to utilize processes that help interpret, sort, and manage information and that adapt findings to convey clarity and applicability to the results. MERRIAM acknowledges case study research can use both quantitative and qualitative methods; however, when working on qualitative case studies, methods aimed at generating inductive reasoning and interpretation rather than testing hypothesis take priority.

Cases are selected based on the research purpose and question, and for what they could reveal about the phenomenon or topic of interest. Interviews are the most common form of qualitative data collection, although MERRIAM does not stipulate prioritizing a particular method for data collection or analysis, she does emphasize the importance of rigorous procedures to frame the research process.

Advocating for careful planning, development, and execution of case study research, MERRIAM , discusses the pragmatic structures that ensure case study research is manageable, rigorous, credible, and applicable.

Processes such as descriptive, thematic and content analysis, and triangulation are significant in ensuring the quality of a study, therefore, methods of data collection and analysis need to be organized and systematized with a detailed chain of evidence MERRIAM, According to BROWN , Merriam's style brings forth a practical application of pluralistic strategies that guide pragmatic constructivist research to derive knowledge about an area of inquiry.

STAKE , has an approach to case study research that is qualitative and closely aligned with a constructivist and interpretivist orientation.

While having a disciplined approach to the process and acknowledging that case study can use quantitative methods, STAKE's approach is underpinned by a strong motivation for discovering meaning and understanding of experiences in context. The role of the researcher in producing this knowledge is critical, and STAKE emphasizes the researcher's interpretive role as essential in the process.

An interpretative position views reality as multiple and subjective, based on meanings and understanding. Knowledge generated from the research process is relative to the time and context of the study and the researcher is interactive and participates in the study.

In terms of epistemology, STAKE argues that situation shapes activity, experience, and one's interpretation of the case.

For STAKE , to understand the case "requires experiencing the activity of the case as it occurs in its context and in its particular situation" p.

The researcher attempts to capture her or his interpreted reality of the case, while studying the case situationally enables an examination of the integrated system in which the case unfolds.

A case is selected because it is interesting in itself or can facilitate the understanding of something else; it is instrumental in providing insight on an issue STAKE, For STAKE, multiple sources and methods of data collection and analysis can be used, however, interviews and observations are the preferred and dominant data collection method. In seeking understanding and meaning, the researcher is positioned with participants as a partner in the discovery and generation of knowledge, where both direct interpretations, and categorical or thematic grouping of findings are used.

STAKE recommends vignettes—episodes of storytelling—to illustrate aspects of the case and thick descriptions to convey findings, a further illustration of his constructivist and interpretivist approach to case study research. BROWN suggests the three approaches used by these seminal researchers rest along a quantitative-qualitative continuum where the postpositivist methodology of YIN sits at one end, STAKE's interpretivist design , sits at the other end and MERRIAM , who as a pragmatic constructivist draws on the elements of both, rests toward the center.

BROWN sums up the influences of each, saying that "case study research is supported by the pragmatic approach of Merriam, informed by the rigour of Yin and enriched by the creative interpretation described by Stake" p. While some may argue that mixing qualitative and quantitative methods could threaten the veracity of the research BOBLIN et al.

N This book is a must-have for budding scholars who need to know the format of a quality research proposal. Not only will I be using this in this class, but I will pull it out for proposal and dissertation, and likely recommend it to my future students.

This is another of the primary textbooks I use in my research methods class and it is a decent supplement to Alan Bryman's book, Social Research Methods. Dalam proses penelusuran literatur, Creswell meminta peneliti untuk memperhatikan kredibilitas suatu sumber sebagai syarat untuk dijadikan sumber penelitian. Dalam pengerjaan tinjauan pustaka, Creswell cenderung tak terlalu merekomendasikan disertasi sebagai materi tinjauan pustaka karena kualitasnya yang berbeda-beda hlm Menurut saya argumentasi yang disampaikan Creswell tidak begitu tepat karena secara objektif semua jenis literatur tentu mempunyai kualitas yang beragam.

Artikel akademis Dalam proses penelusuran literatur, Creswell meminta peneliti untuk memperhatikan kredibilitas suatu sumber sebagai syarat untuk dijadikan sumber penelitian. Artikel akademis baik berupa disertasi, jurnal, makalah, atau website tentu memiliki standar kualitas yang tak sama. Jika dikomparasikan dengan jurnal ilmiah, tentu sebuah karya disertasi mengalami proses pengerjaan yang panjang lewat serangkaian pengujian oleh pakar di bidangnya.

Bahkan, pengerjaan disertasi dibarengi oleh proses pembelajaran di kelas sebagaimana mahasiswa pada umumnya. Artinya, seorang peneliti pasti memperoleh internalisasi pengetahuan yang lebih luas dibandingkan skup penelitian disertasinya semata. Oleh karena itu, asumsi yang muncul justru kualitas sebuah disertasi lebih terjamin dibandingkan karya-karya akademis lainnya. Namun, pendapat Creswell terkait perbedaan kualitas tentu benar karena institusi tempat lahirnya karya disertasi punya standar mutu yang berbeda-beda.

Menurut saya, Creswell perlu menambahkan argumentasi terhadap disertasi. Menurut pendapat saya, pada dasarnya disertasi adalah karya akademis yang komprehensif yang mencoba melingkupi secara utuh suatu pertanyaan penelitian. Oleh karenanya, dalam tataran teknis pembuatan tinjauan pustaka penulis tak begitu mudah untuk menangkap gagasan inti dari tulisan tersebut.

Oleh karenanya, aspek kerumitan tulisan menjadi alasan lain mengapa disertasi berada di poin ke lima dari rekomendasi Creswell. Hal ini jelas berbeda dengan Jurnal nasional atau internasional yang lebih ringkas dibanding disertasi. Karena alasan teknis soal batasan jumlah halaman, otomatis suatu artikel jurnal menyampaikan gagasan utamanya secara ringkas dan padat.

Atas alasan jumlah halaman pula suatu disertasi menjadi begitu panjang. Namun tentunya, syarat batas halaman bagi sebuah disertasi bukan ditujukan untuk mempanjanglembarkan penjelasan semata, tetapi merupakan ruang ekspresi luas agar penulis disertasi mampu menjelaskan secara komprehensif suatu kasus yang diangkatnya. Pendapat Creswell yang memposisikan jurnal di tingkatan paling atas tentu berasal dari pandangan umum tentang proses seleksi tulisan yang begitu ketat, apalagi untuk jurnal internasional kenamaan.

Creswell hanya merekomendasikan jurnal ternama dengan kredibilitas baik untuk dijadikan tinjauan pustaka. Secara umum, mahasiswa doktoral di Indonesia didorong untuk menghasilkan tulisan jurnal internasional, terlebih bagi staf pengajar kampus. Dari berbagai pengalaman yang ada, proses pengajuan hingga tulisan terbit bisa memakan waktu satu tahun dengan proses seleksi-revisi yang panjang. Oleh karenanya, tak heran tulisan jurnal menjadi rekomendasi teratas Creswell.

Peringkat prioritas menurut Creswell adalah buku yang berkaitan dengan topik. Mengenai pandangan ini saya mengkhawatirkan tentang kualitas buku-buku terbitan dalam negeri yang beredar di pasaran. Terlebih sekarang begitu banyak penerbit independen yang memproduksi buku mandiri.

Kualitas suatu buku sangat bergantung kepada kualitas penerbitnya, oleh karena itu tak heran muncul beberapa penerbit yang dianggap kredibel atas rekam jejaknya dalam menghasilkan buku-buku yang berkualitas. Pada poin ini saya menilai, argumentasi Creswell perlu dilengkapi lebih rinci tentang standar kualitas suatu buku, sehingga dalam urutan prioritas literatur ia layak duduk di peringkat kedua.

Masih berkaitan dengan penjelasan Creswell tentang buku, saya merasa belum tercerahkan tentang tipe buku berdasarkan jumlah penulisnya. Menurut saya, buku yang berisi kumpulan tulisan orang-orang semacam bunga rampai sulit saya identifikasi keterkaitan antara teori yang dijelaskan pada halaman pendahuluan yang dikerjakan editor dengan kumpulan tulisan yang ada.

Kadang saya merasa tulisan tersebut tidak relevan dengan tema besar yang usung buku tersebut. Sebenarnya harapann saya, penjelasan Creswell bisa lebih diperdalam, apalagi ia sudah menjelaskan perbedaan jenis-jenis buku berdasarkan jumlah penulis. Khususnya pula, terkait pertanyaan saya ketika harus menuangkan suatu buku yang terdiri dari banyak penulis untuk dijadikan tinjauan pustaka.

Ia menjelaskan tentang handbook, book, statistical indexes, databases, dll. Jika pada buku Research Design, Creswell menjelaskan tentang skala prioritas dalam memilih literatur. Pada buku Educational Research, ia membuat dua kemungkinan yakni: Artinya, ia ingin mengatakan tak ada yang keliru hendak dimulai dari penelusuran sumber tersebut. Di akhir saya ingin mengatakan relevansi urutan yang disampaikan Creswell dalam konteks iklim akademis di Indonesia.

Asumsi sederhana saya, dengan kualitas pendidikan yang berbeda antara Amerika dengan Indonesia, tentu perlu adaptasi yang tepat atas urutan prioritas literatur yang Creswell ajukan.

Atau dalam perspektif yang lain, perlu pengadaptasian atau penjelasan tambahan dari pakar metodologi penelitian yang faham konteks Indonesia. Sebagai pembaca pemula dalam bidang metodologi ilmu sosial, saya merasa terbantu dengan penjelasan Creswell tentang langkah memulai penelitian. Bab sebelumnya tentang metode penelitian dan bab ini tentang literature review menjadi materi yang komprehensif tentang pentingnya fondasi literatur dalam mendisain proposal.

Ia meminta peneliti untuk mengaitkan pemahaman tentang metode penelitian yang dikaitkan dengan penyusunan literature review agar peneliti menggunakannya secara konsisten. Sebagaimana pandangan Creswell bahwa proses tinjauan pustaka ini hendak menjawab dua pertanyaan inti sebuah rencana riset, yakni apakah penelitian dapat dan layak diteliti. Pengerjaan ini akan memunculkan perdebatan dalam literatur-literatur sehingga peneliti mendapati celah yang ada dari sejumlah literatur tersebut.

Proses ini dilakukan dengan menuangkannya ke dalam tulisan atau model literature map. Analisis dan respons yang saya buat didominasi pada subbab prioritas dalam memilih literatur. Saya menilai penjelasan tentang 6 jenis literatur yang disampaikan Creswell perlu pengadaptasian atau penjelasan tambahan dari pakar metodologi penelitian yang faham konteks Indonesia. This is an incredibly useful and thorough guide for graduate students or early career scholars designing their first research projects or developing projects using methods that are new to them.

The fifth edition includes readable descriptions and definitions for approaches to research, methods for data collection and data analysis, and guidance for writing the design and results of a project.

I especially appreciated the visual elements of this edition that show the correlation between different This is an incredibly useful and thorough guide for graduate students or early career scholars designing their first research projects or developing projects using methods that are new to them.

I especially appreciated the visual elements of this edition that show the correlation between different aspects of a project and how different approaches relate to one another. This guide is a strong starting point for anyone starting qualitative research for the first or second, third, fourth If this wasn't a required textbook I'd never waste my time on it.

I think the writer is one of those people that just likes to hear himself talk. Unfortunately, he's managed to convince people like publishers, editors, and academics that if he uses a bunch of big words in order to state simplistic ideas that it somehow makes the stuff coming out of his mouth actually mean something.

I hate books that are written in the most dry way possible. There is nothing that says because you have a serious topic you have to present it as being as exciting as a hysterectomy. Feb 28, Cheryl rated it really liked it. Excellent guide to the types of research designs and methods and all they entail. The explanations are clear and concise, the examples are helpful, and the language throughout is straightforward and highly readable. Oct 06, Scott rated it really liked it Shelves: This book was at times way above my head as a student, sometimes a bit repetitive.

In the end, if you are trying to learn about research design, at the beginning stages, then this is a good resource. It shouldn't be your only resource, but one of several. Jun 19, Nikhil Gupta rated it really liked it. Creswell is a Professor of Educational Psychology and teaches courses and writes about qualitative methodology and mixed methods research. He has been at the University of Nebraska- Lincoln for 30 years and has authored 11 books many of which focus on research design, qualitative research, and mixed methods research and are translated into many languages and used around the world.

This is a brilliant instructional book written for students and experienced field researchers. If anyone has John W. Overview of the chapters; This book is divided into two parts. Part I consist of steps that researchers need to reflect on before they expand their proposals or plans for research. Part II discusses the various sections of a proposal. A selection of a research Design: In this chapter, author begins by defining quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods as research designs.

These designs are plans for a study, and they include three significant elements: Review of the Literature: It is vital to comprehensively review the literature on topic before one designs proposal. Thus one needs to start with a researchable topic and then investigate the literature using the steps developed in this chapter.

Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations: Finally, in the first part, the author turns to ethical issues and discuss these not as abstract ideas, but as considerations that need to be anticipated in all segments of the research progression. In Part II, I turn to the components of designing the research proposal. Chapters 5 through 10 address steps in this process.

This introduction comprises the notion identifying the research problem or issue, enclosing this problem within the existing literature, pointing out insufficiencies in the literature and aiming the study for a specific audience.

This chapter offers an efficient method for designing a scholarly introduction to a proposal or study. In this chapter, researcher learns how to write this statement for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies. Readers can find scripts that help in designing and writing these statements.

Research Questions and Hypotheses: In this chapter, the reader learns how to write both qualitative and quantitative research questions and hypotheses. And also discovers how to utilize both forms in writing mixed methods questions and hypotheses. Quantitative methods involve the procedure of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and writing the outcome of a study.

In this chapter, the reader learns the specific procedures for designing survey or experimental methods that need to go into a research proposal.

Checklists provided in the chapter help to ensure that all vital steps are incorporated. Purposeful sampling, collection of open-ended data, analysis of text or pictures, representation of information in figures and tables, and personal interpretation of the findings all inform qualitative procedures. This chapter advances steps in designing qualitative procedures into a research proposal.

Moreover it also contains a checklist for making sure that you cover all essential procedures. Six types of mixed methods designs are stressed along with a discussion about criteria for selecting one of them based on timing, weight, mixing, and the use of theory. Figures are offered that suggest visuals that the proposal developer can design and include in a proposal.

Researchers find a sort detail to learn mixed methods research as practiced today and the types of designs that might be used in a research proposal. This book is an excellent introduction to research design for qualitative, quantitative and mixed- methods designs. It explains all the aspects of a research design and takes reader through each one, including the literature review, research question and hypotheses. Also, the first chapter goes through the multiple theoretical viewpoints from which research proceeds, therefore the readers come to know different paradigms.

It also has lots of models, examples and exercises to work through. This book can be effectively useful in many ways. The author goes to enormous lengths to offer illustrations from real studies to exemplify the concepts which are very useful; he also does a decent job promoting mixed methods research within the context of its recent history.

Interspersed throughout the pages are tables, suggested writing activities, examples, and informative step-by- step sidebars pertinent to specific topics.

Each chapter is recapitulated and additional suggested readings to investigate are listed. In short, it is strongly recommend for any student who is engaged in research work or anyone interested in putting together a good proposal, or an instructor who wants a well-written foundational text.

In addition, this book is an excellent resource to field researchers who have experience in one research approach but not in the other two. Therefore, it is highly recommend for both inexperienced and experienced researchers.

Jan 04, Babak rated it really liked it Shelves: An excellent reference book for writing good designs for your research, be it a master or a phd. I wish it also included design science. Oct 31, Eric Herr rated it liked it. This is a re-read for my Capstone. Found it enjoyable and valuable the first time around and imagine it will serve me well as a reference book the second time around. I know this is an important work in the field of research, particularly in the social sciences. But this was not relevant for me.

That makes it too narrow in its usefulness. Feb 17, Melissa Cowder rated it really liked it. This textbook was used in one of my college courses.

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THIRD EDITION RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches JOHN W. CRESWELL UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA-LlNCOLN ~SAGE Los Angeles • London • New Delhi • Singapore.

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Descriptive research design is a valid method for researching specific subjects and as a precursor to more quantitative studies. Whilst there are some valid concerns about the statistical validity, as long as the limitations are understood by the researcher, this type of study is an invaluable scientific tool.

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To define the descriptive type of research, Creswell stated that the descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition. Furthermore, this method is used to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause/s of particular phenomenon. Following is a brief description of each type of quantitative research design, as well as chart comparing and contrasting the approaches. A Descriptive Design seeks to describe the current status of a variable or phenomenon. The researcher does not begin with a hypothesis, but typically develops one after the data is collected.

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In the geographically remote culture and context of descriptive research definition by creswell Gilgit Baltistan Pakistan, this study explores the perceptions and practices of peace education by two secondary. B). · Descriptive research is a study of status a summary of mesopotamian art and architecture and is widely used in . Research design is defined as the clearly defined structures within which the study is Descriptive research involves direct exploration, analysis and description of the particular phenomena, as free as possible from unexplained presuppositions, aiming at While Creswell () states that purposive.