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Praxis Social Studies - Content Knowledge Learn about one of the fundamental components of economics. What Is Aggregate Supply? It includes the supply of the following types of goods: Consumer goods , such as electronics, clothes, vehicles, furniture and food. This is essentially all the goods you utilize in your household and purchase when you go shopping. These goods are things that help produce more consumer goods for us. These are things like machinery and equipment for manufacturing companies.
These are goods and services that businesses supply for local, state and federal governments. These are often awarded to private businesses in the form of contracts. Examples may be construction of community buildings, work on public parks, or private defense contracts. These are goods and services that are often exported to other countries.
Examples may be steel, tires, pharmaceuticals, airplanes and agricultural products. Determinants of Aggregate Supply Changes in labor force: Want to learn more? Select a subject to preview related courses: Lesson Summary In summary, aggregate supply AS is defined as the total amount of goods and services produced and supplied by an economy's firms over a specific time period at given price levels.
Learning Outcomes By the end of this lesson you should be able to: Define aggregate supply List what aggregate supply is composed of Discuss how various factors can increase or decrease aggregate supply. Unlock Your Education See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.
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Your goal is required. Email Email is required. Email is not a valid email. Email already in use. Cancel before and your credit card will not be charged. Your Cart is Empty. Please Choose a Product. Password must be at least 8 characters long. Password may only be 56 characters long. It does have a significant flaw, however: The Aggregate Demand Curve AD represents, in that sense, an even more appropriate model of aggregate output, because it shows the various amounts of goods and services which domestic consumers C , businesses I , the government G , and foreign buyers NX collectively will desire at each possible price level.
In the graph below, we show the standard aggregate expenditures curve at three different price levels. This is depicted in the AD framework as a downward sloping AD curve.
Why does it make sense for the AD curve to slope downward and to the right? We will suggest three different rationales for the downward sloped curve: We make the assumption that at any given point in time, there is a fixed amount of money in circulation.
At higher price levels, the money in circulation can purchase fewer items. A total of items could be purchased under these conditions. At higher prices, the money in circulation will spread over fewer goods. When prices fall, the purchasing power of the money in circulation goes up, and people can buy more goods and services. This relationship between prices and the amount of goods and services that can be purchased with a given money supply is called the real balances effect.
It justifies our depiction of the AD curve as a downward sloping curve. The interest rate effect explains impact that the price level has on interest rates, and thus on certain components of AD. When the price level goes up, people need more money to transact their daily purchases. Therefore, higher prices lead to an increase in the demand for money. With a fixed amount of money in circulation, increasing the demand for money will cause the interest rate to go up.
Think of how you would behave if you were running a bank and the demand for money increased. You would try to encourage additional people to deposit money into the bank, and at the same time discourage people from coming into the bank to demand money. The way to do both simultaneously would be to increase the interest rate.
As interest rates go up, investment demand and certain interest-rate sensitive consumption purchases will fall. Thus, increases in the price lead to increases the interest rate, which reduces the demand for both Consumption and Investment, and thus real output. The interest rate effect is therefore an additional justification for the downward sloping AD curve. Domestic prices also have an impact on Net Exports NX through what is called the foreign purchases effect.
Since NX are part of AD, this contributes to an inverse relationship between the price level and the demand for our real domestic output. The opposite is also true. The foreign purchases effect contributes to our argument for why the AD is downward sloping. Anything that changes the price level triggers these three effects and is represented by movement along a given AD curve.
There are other factors that influence aggregate demand besides the price level, and these factors are referred to as determinants of AD. When these other factors change, they cause a shift in the entire AD curve and are sometimes called aggregate demand shifters. The graph below illustrates what a change in a determinant of aggregate demand will do to the position of the aggregate demand curve.
As we consider each of the determinants remember that those factors that cause an increase in AD will shift the curve outward and to the right and those factors that cause a decrease in AD will shift the curve inward and to the left. There are several factors that could increase or decrease consumption that are unrelated to changes in the price level. For instance, increases in consumer wealth would increase consumption at each price level and would be illustrated by a rightward shift in AD.
Decreases in consumer wealth would have the opposite effect. Increases in consumer indebtedness would decrease consumption and shift the aggregate demand curve to the left, while decreases in indebtedness would have the opposite effect.
Increases in taxes will decrease consumption and shift the AD curve to the left while decreases in taxes will increase consumption and shift the AD curve to the right. Consumer expectations about the future of the economy can have a strong impact on consumptions.
Optimism about the economy will increase consumption and shift the AD curve to the right, while widespread pessimism dampens consumer spending and shifts the AD curve to the left. You can probably think of other factors that will shift the AD curve because they impact consumption independent of the price level.
There are several factors unrelated to changes in the price level that could increase or decrease Investment and thereby shift the AD curve. For instance, any change in the interest rate not brought about by a change in the price level would change the level of investment in the economy, and shift the AD curve.
Increases in the interest rate will reduce investment demand; decreases in the interest rate will increase investment demand. Business taxes can be structured to either encourage investment shifting the AD to the right or discourage investment shifting AD to the left. Technological improvements in an industry might make old equipment obsolete and stimulate investment, shifting AD to the right.
Finally, like the impact of expectations on consumers, optimism or pessimism on the part of business owners can lead to increases or decreases in investment activity and shift the AD curve to the right or left. The political process will sometimes lead to increases or decreases in the level of government spending.
Increases in government spending will shift the AD curve to the right; decreases in government spending will shift the AD curve to the left. There are two important factors unrelated to the price level that could increase or decrease the level of Net Exports and thereby shift the AD Curve.
The first has to do with changes in national income abroad. As income abroad grows relative to income in the United States, foreigners are able to buy US products more easily and Americans can afford fewer foreign goods.
Net exports will go up, shifting the AD curve to the right. If incomes abroad fall relative to income in the US, the AD curve will shift left due to a decrease in net exports. The second factor has to do with exchange rates, or the relative value of our currency to the currency of a trading partner. If the value of the yen relative to the dollar changes so that it takes Yen to buy one US dollar, this will decrease the amount that Japanese citizens will buy in the US, and increase the amount that US citizens can buy in Japan.
This change in the exchange rate will cause net exports to fall and the AD curve to shift to the left. If the Japanese Yen were to appreciate relative to the dollar, net exports would rise and the AD curve would shift to the right. Return to the course in I-Learn and complete the activity that corresponds with this material.
Aggregate Supply AS is a curve showing the level of real domestic output available at each possible price level. Typically AS is depicted with an unusual looking graph like the one shown below.
There is a specific reason for why the AS has this peculiar shape. The various ranges depict three different states in which the economy may find itself. The three states of the economy can all be thought of in relation to what is called the full-employment level of output, labeled Qf in the graph below.
We will now discuss each of the three ranges of the AS. In the Keynesian range of AS, we are at outputs which are substantially below Qf. This horizontal range implies an economy in severe recession or depression. Remember that Keynes wrote his General Theory during the heights of the Great Depression, so the range of AS that is associated with his name corresponds to such an economy. Assume that you were running a factory during a severe recession with high unemployment, and you decided that you would like to increase output.
You realize that, to increase output, you are going to have to employ more inputs, primarily more labor—however, a similar argument could be made about high unemployment of any of the other factors of production.
You go to the factory door, open it, and find thousands of unemployed workers standing in line, wanting to work at your factory. How much would you have to pay them to get them to go to work for you? Certainly, you would not have to pay them more than the going wage rate in the market, right? Essentially, you could hire as many unemployed resources as you would like without bidding up wages and prices, because of the substantial unemployment.
The horizontal or Keynesian AS illustrates the idea of the economy being able to increase real output with no increase in the price level during periods of high unemployment. In the Classical Range of AS, we are at or very near the full-employment level of output. This range is named after the Classical Economists who assumed that the economy, in the long run, would always achieve full employment.
Assume again that you are running a factory, only this time, the economy is at full-employment. You go to the factory door and open it to find nobody waiting in line. There does not appear to be anyone looking for a job because everyone already has one! How much are you going to have to pay these workers to get them to do that? Most likely you will have to pay them more than they are currently making. As you bid up wages in the labor market to attract additional workers, prices in the economy will also rise, because now it costs more to produce your product.
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The demand curve only shows the relationship between the price and quantity. If one of the other determinants changes, the entire demand curve shifts.
Determinants of Aggregate Supply Changes in labor force: Anything that causes the amount of workers to increase in an economy will cause aggregate supply to increase or shift to the right. If the labor force decreases, the overall supply of goods and services will decrease also. Section Determinants of Aggregate Supply The graph below illustrates what a change in a determinant of aggregate supply will do to the position of the aggregate supply curve. As we consider each of the determinants remember that those factors that cause an increase in AS will shift the curve outward and to the right and those factors that cause a decrease in AS will shift the curve upward and .
Learn aggregate supply determinants with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of aggregate supply determinants flashcards on Quizlet. Aggregate Demand is an economic measurement of the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a specific time period. It is congruent with the laws defining the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country in the long run after price.