A program of supported employment will result in either no change or negative effects on psychological functioning and self esteem. A program of supported employment will lead to positive effects on psychological functioning and self esteem. The population of interest for this study is all adults with SMI residing in the U. The population that is accessible to this study consists of all persons who were clients of the Thresholds Agency in Chicago, Illinois between the dates of March 1, and February 28, who met the following criteria: The sampling frame was obtained from records of the agency.
Because of the large number of clients who pass through the agency each year e. This resulted in a sample size of persons over the two-year course of the study. In terms of illness history, the members in the sample averaged 4 prior psychiatric hospitalizations and spent a lifetime average of 9 months as patients in psychiatric hospitals.
Participants had spent an average of almost two and one-half years 29 months at the longest job they ever held. While the study sample cannot be considered representative of the original population of interest, generalizability was not a primary goal -- the major purpose of this study was to determine whether a specific SE program could work in an accessible context. Any effects of SE evident in this study can be generalized to urban psychiatric agencies that are similar to Thresholds, have a similar clientele, and implement a similar program.
All but one of the measures used in this study are well-known instruments in the research literature on psychosocial functioning. All of the instruments were administered as part of a structured interview that an evaluation social worker had with study participants at regular intervals. Two measures of psychological functioning were used. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale BPRS Overall and Gorham, is an item scale that measures perceived severity of symptoms ranging from "somatic concern" and "anxiety" to "depressive mood" and "disorientation.
The Global Assessment Scale GAS Endicott et al, is a single 1-to rating on a scale where each ten-point increment has a detailed description of functioning higher scores indicate better functioning. For instance, one would give a rating between if the person showed "no symptoms, superior functioning Two measures of self esteem were used. The total score is simply the sum across the ten items, with five of the items being reversals.
The final ten items were selected from a pool of 97 original candidate items, based upon high item-total score correlations and a judgment of face validity by a panel of three psychologists. This instrument was deliberately kept simple -- a shorter response scale and no reversal items -- because of the difficulties associated with measuring a population with SMI.
The entire instrument is provided in Appendix A. All four of the measures evidenced strong reliability and validity. Internal consistency reliability estimates using Cronbach's alpha ranged from. Test-retest reliabilities were nearly as high, ranging from. Convergent validity was evidenced by the correlations within construct. For the two psychological functioning scales the correlation was.
Discriminant validity was examined by looking at the cross-construct correlations which ranged from. A pretest-posttest two-group randomized experimental design was used in this study.
In notational form, the design can be depicted as:. The comparison group received the standard Thresholds protocol which emphasized in-house training in life skills and employment in an in-house sheltered workshop.
All participants were measured at intake pretest and at three months after intake posttest. This type of randomized experimental design is generally strong in internal validity. It rules out threats of history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, mortality and selection interactions. Its primary weaknesses are in the potential for treatment-related mortality i. Because these rates are low and are approximately equal in each group, it is not plausible that there is differential mortality.
There is a possibility that there were some deleterious effects due to participant knowledge of the other group's existence e. Staff were debriefed at several points throughout the study and were explicitly asked about such issues. There were no reports of any apparent negative feelings from the participants in this regard. Nor is it plausible that staff might have equalized conditions between the two groups.
Staff were given extensive training and were monitored throughout the course of the study. Overall, this study can be considered strong with respect to internal validity. For those selected, the purpose of the study was explained, including the nature of the two treatments, and the need for and use of random assignment. Participants were assured confidentiality and were given an opportunity to decline to participate in the study.
Only 7 people out of refused to participate. In addition, all study participants were given the four measures at intake. All participants spent the initial two weeks in the program in training and orientation. This consisted of life skill training e. At the end of that period, each participant was assigned to a job site -- at the agency sheltered workshop for those in the control condition, and to an outside employer if in the Supported Employment group.
Control participants were expected to work full-time at the sheltered workshop for a three-month period, at which point they were posttested and given an opportunity to obtain outside employment either Supported Employment or not.
The Supported Employment participants were each assigned a case worker -- called a Mobile Job Support Worker MJSW -- who met with the person at the job site two times per week for an hour each time. The MJSW could provide any support or assistance deemed necessary to help the person cope with job stress, including counseling or working beside the person for short periods of time.
In addition, the MJSW was always accessible by cellular telephone, and could be called by the participant or the employer at any time. At the end of three months, each participant was post-tested and given the option of staying with their current job with or without Supported Employment or moving to the sheltered workshop. It may be troublesome to even write the methods parameter but this will greatly improve the quality of your research paper.
Apart from the data gathering techniques, research paper methodologies also give the readers an idea on what proper formulations are good for a particular set of data. The use of various statistical tools for example ANOVA and descriptive statistics can be shown in the research study. The methodology clarifies all these concerns for the readers. Therefore, you can still build up the excellence of your research paper by having a consistent methodology. Finally this should conclude with findings which necessarily should be numeric and descriptive information.
It will all depend on whether you can find a good step by step reading material on how to write a methodology. But as a suggestion, you should also take time to get at least a single document on how to write the methodology.
For this aspect that characterizes a good research methodology, indicate how the research approach fits with the general study , considering the literature review outline and format , and the following sections. A common limitation of academic articles found in research papers is that the premises of the methodology are not backed by reasons on how they help achieve the aims of the article.
Data Analysis Methods This section should also focus on information on how you intend to analyze your results. Describe how you plan and intend to achieve an accurate assessment of the hypotheses, relationships, patterns, trends, distributions associated with your data and research purpose.
The data type, how it was measured, and which statistical tests were conducted and performed, should be detailed and reported in an accurate manner. There are certain aspects that you need to pay extra attention in relation to your research methodology section. The most common issues to avoid are:. This blog series focuses on useful academic writing tips.
Next, we discuss empirical analysis and results. For academic writing help, focus on these criteria and tips on how to write a great research methodology for your academic article. Internal secondary data research. External secondary data research. You may also like. Responsabilities of Publisher Related Policies and Links 11 months ago. Responsabilities of Publisher Responsibilities of the Publisher in the Relationship with Journal Editors 11 months ago.
The methodology section of a research paper answers two main questions: How was the data collected or generated? And, how was it analyzed? The writing should be .
Writing Methodology at the Core of the Research Paper A well laid out and logical methodology section will provide a solid backbone for the entire research paper, and will lead to a strong results section.
Research paper methodology is the process followed during the whole research activity and essentially is the core component of the research paper itself. Practically speaking, this certain part of a research paper provides the overall reliability factor of the study. Research Methodology refers the discussion regarding the specific methods chosen and used in a research paper. This discussion also encompasses the theoretical concepts that further provide information about the methods selection and application.
The methods section of a research paper provides the information by which a study's validity is judged. Therefore, it requires a clear and precise description of how an experiment was done, and the rationale for why specific experimental procedures were chosen. Full Length Methodology Research Letters / Rapid Communications / Short Communications Case Studies Review Papers paper structure (problem, methods, case studies, conclusions), but without section headings Structured abstracts follow headings required by the journal. Often used in .