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MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)
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Now, with the new version of MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the same citation structure. The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and innovative ways of obtaining information.

We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and articles. We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways. To make the process of creating citations easier for researchers and scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for all source types.

There are two types of citations. There are regular or complete citations, which are found at the end of research projects. Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format:.

Last name of the author, First name of the author. Not sure how to transfer the information from your source into your citation? See the next section to find out how to create in text citations. As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. We include these types of citations in the body of a project for readers to quickly gain an idea as to where we found the information.

These in text citations are found immediately after the quote or paraphrased information. They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular citation. The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of a project. Too much fire and you have a bad temper We want them to focus on our work and research, not necessarily our sources. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to place a paragraph number use the abbreviation par.

And I saw you and Mommy. Footnotes and endnotes are not used in this style. Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in the body of your work. In addition, create full, or regular citations, and place them at the end of your project on the Works Cited list. If you need help with in text and parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help. A period closes this information.

When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in which they appear on the source. Place their names in this format:. There are many times when three or more authors work together on a source. This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and textbooks. The other authors are accounted for by using et al. In Latin, et al. Warner, Ralph, et al. How to Buy a House in California.

Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed. Is there no author listed on your source? Was the source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? We want to share the libraryofcongress collection. While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to.

Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. Directed by James Cameron.

In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer. This is often done with edited books, too. Our website is easy to use and will create your citations in just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on the source, and in title form, meaning the important words start with a capital.

Wondering whether to place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not. If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in italics. If the title is part of a larger whole, place the title of the source in quotation marks and the source it sits in, in italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics.

However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics.

From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container. When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal.

It is important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves. When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix. If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the second container is found at the end of the citation.

If the source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for each container. Not all of the fields in the citation format above need to be included in your citation.

In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves. Here is an example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on is the other. Medical Electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris. Project Muse , muse. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source.

If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation. To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the word by, and then their name in standard order.

If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased. Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation.

When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed. Dodd and Bruce I. Google Books , books. Many sources have numbers associated with them.

In MLA format citing, it is important to include the name of the publisher the organization that created or published the source , so that readers can locate the exact source themselves. Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the publisher matches the name of the website.

Publication dates are extremely important to include in citations. They allow the reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves. Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations.

Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date? Use the date that is most applicable to your research. The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source.

For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help! Our site is simple and fun! Need some more help? There is further good information here. Theory and International Application. Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website.

Last name, First name of author. The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom. There are a variety of ways to cite an image. This section will show how to cite a digital image found on a website and an image in print. Last name, First name of the creator if available.

Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses. Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Cite the image using the information from the original site. They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself:. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published.

If the article appears on nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited.

An essay is an analytic writing piece that is generally short in length compared to books and journal articles and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of authors, the title of the essay placed in quotation marks , the title of the book, collection, or site the essay is found on in italics , the name of the editor if there is one , the volume and issue number if they are available , the publication date, and the location.

The location can be either a page range or a URL. Click here for additional information on essays. Check to see if the the PDF is written by an individual, set of authors, or an organization or company. Continue with the title of the PDF, version if there are different versions available , the publisher only include if the name of the publisher is different than the name of the author or the title , the publication date, and the location usually a URL if found online. Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher The American Podiatric Medical Association is omitted since the name of the publisher is the same name as the author.

By Claire Fresches, et al. National Gallery of Art, If an image is untitled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Do not italicize this title or place it in quotes, and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns. Seal of the society set in a landscape with ornaments.

Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society , vol. Photograph of a horse running. The Father of the Motion Picture.

To cite an interview you have conducted as part of your research, give the name of the person you interviewed, the type of interview, and the date or range of dates. Give the name of the person who wrote the email. The title is the subject line of the email. For "Received by," the name will usually be your own.

Finish with the date of the email. Student Login Faculty Login. Need the 7th Edition? OR A recent newspaper article demonstrated just how thoroughly the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents Jackson. A specific page Cortois 70 If the author's name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place Jacobs has argued this point Multi-volume set Green 1: Citing multiple authors See Authors , below.

Authors One author Example: Works Cited List Example: In-Text Citation Fontela, Pablo, et al. In-Text Citation "Hints and Notions. Titles Titles of books, periodicals, art works, reports and Web sites are italicized.

Volume and Issue Numbers Volume and issue numbers are often not available for articles in online periodicals. Online periodical where volume and issue numbers are not given Journal of Family Counseling , Page Numbers Source Example Page range whose first number is over not not Do not repeat any numbers that can be easily inferred by the reader. Online periodical where page numbers are not given Persuasions , vol. Simply omit page numbers and give the URL after the publication date.

Citing a Source within a Source Scenario: Wills cited in Robbins notes that Top Articles Academic Journals: Free Web Cohen, Lara Langer. In print Jordan, Stephanie. More info In-text citation examples General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Include volume and issue number example: Free Web Grossman, Lev. In print Aviv, Rachel. Free Web Brady, Heather.

In print Beard, Alison. When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: Free Web Michaels, Andrew.

In print Brown, Patricia Leigh. Give the page number on which the material you've used appears in your in-text citation, for example: In print Grimes, William.

The name of the work being reviewed should be preceded by "Rev. Edited book Miller, John, and Tim Smith, editors. Numbered edition other than the first Wardle, Elizabeth, and Doug Downs, editors. Revised edition Culliney, John L. Multi-volume set Green, Constance McLaughlin.

Chapter or article in an anthology Toibin, Colm. Note on publisher element: MLA citation style no longer includes the publisher's city, only the publisher's name. If the publisher's name includes "University" or "Press," abbreviate those, without periods, for example: U of Pittsburgh P, Free Web Seton, Ernest Thompson.

Book chapter from a library database suggested format Thompson, Kate. Author is an organization Poetry Foundation. In print Information Security: Top Dissertations and Theses MLA does not provide official citation formats for dissertations and theses retrieved from online sources, but we recommend the use of the following: Free Web Caprette, Christopher L.

In print Caprette, Christopher L. Free Web Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. In print Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. Top Images MLA provides limited guidance on citing images: Free Web Rousseau, Henri. Image reproduced in a printed source Rousseau, Henri. Untitled Image If an image is untitled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Image reproduced in a printed source Muybridge, Eadweard.

Give the number of the page that the image appears on after the book's publication information. If known, the collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above. E-mail message Doe, Jane. The entire work or a work that has no page numbers Include information in the text of your paper that will allow the reader to locate the source in your works cited list.

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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

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Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free. Online MLA citation generator for all sources: book, newspaper, magazine, website, etc. It's a quick and trusted way to create your annotated bibliography in the MLA style. It's based on the latest 8th edition of the MLA Handbook.