Is it possible to apply an emic model of organizational success cross-culturally? Suppose someone wants to understand which attributes of entrepreneurs e. Should they collect emic or etic data? Use this as a jumping-off point to provide a general set of guidelines for when to conduct emic versus etic studies. Critically examine how intra-cultural variability is handled in qualitative work. By intra-cultural variability I mean the variability in perceptions and behaviors among members of a sample group such as a set of nurses in a hospital.
How do the ethnographies and grounded theories that emerge from qualitative studies handle the variability? How do cultural domain analyses that purport to describe the structure of a cultural domain e. In any given organization, there are some qualities of individuals which are rewarded and respected and other qualities that are not. In other words, there is an understanding — a culture -- of what constitutes good performance.
As a consultant, you are charged with interviewing members of the organization and determining what that understanding or culture is.
How do you go about it? What kinds of research questions is cultural domain analysis best suited for? Is there a real objective world out there that we can examine as researchers? Or can we only examine constructions of something that might be real, true and objective? Or is everything a construction? If you have never thought about this and you want to conduct scientific research, a recommendation is to read the seminal works by Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend: Kuhn shows that many of the great scientific discoveries were made by chance rather than by applying a rigid methodology.
Thus, we can never be sure whether our knowledge is in fact objective or whether it is limited to what we are able to see at the moment.
The limitations may be of technical or cognitive nature. Kuhn provides examples where scientists have not recognized obvious facts just because they did not believe that they could exist. When you are interested to find out more about the way science works, I recommend reading the book yourself. For all readers with German language proficiency, I suggest the book by Wallach on the philosophical basic of science.
Feyerabend is another must-read if you are interested in the philosophy of science. He became known as revolutionary scientists and most readers are likely to have heard about his famous methodological conclusion: A famous quote is: This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.
When applying qualitative research methods , the emphasis is put on the natural setting and the pointsof views of the research participants.
Additionally, special consideration is given to the researcher as person. He or she is not the independent observer in a white coat — a picture that is often drawn when natural scientists are depicted. As Denzin and Lincoln write: We can only see what our class, culture, race, gender or other factors allows us to recognize.
There are plenty of examples for this in our everyday life. One day I needed a longer cable and asked the secretary whether the institute had such a cable. I had already looked through the cupboard where the cables are stored but did not find anything. The secretary then went together with me to the same cupboard and gave me a long transparent cable. I had looked for something black and therefore did not see it.
The same happens when you conduct research and simply do not consider that the thing you look for might be red or blue or even patterned instead of black and white. There are numerous famous examples where major discoveries were delayed or where observations were ignored because they did not fit prevalent theory and thus inhibiting progress and knowledge generation. When you are interested, take a look at the already mentioned books by Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend. I am not sure whether you, the reader, already have a clear position about how you see the world that you want to examine in your research project.
But you should grasp by now that qualitative research is not desk research, we go out into whatever we consider the real world, observe and talk to people, interact with them aiming to understand what is important to them and how they perceive the world.
Self-reflection is our constant companion and from the very beginning to the end of a research project it is important to consider who we are, how we are perceived by others and as what kind of person we enter the field. This also influences the type of research question we select. In this section, I draw on the writings by John Dewey ] , another influential author.
Very reassuring for beginning researchers, he states that research follows a uniform structure, which applies to our everyday life as well as to science.
In other words, there are familiar elements in conducting research and we can draw on knowledge that we already have gained in our everyday life. Dewey describes the research process as follows:. It is a situation that makes us fell disturbed, troubled, confused; it is ambiguous and contradictory. This leads us to formulate a problem statement and to determine a way to solve this problem.
Dewey puts it very simply: In consequence, research is and should be based on real life problems and should not contain fictitious elements. Often questions are derived from the personal biography or social context of the researcher.
The connection between social context and personal biography is for example obvious in the following student projects I supervised in the past:. After having come across an uncertain situation, the next step is to clearly identify and formulate the problem. This is very important as the problem statement is like a lens through which you look at reality, it reduces the complexity of reality and structures the research field. Further, you derive more detailed research questions and hypothesis from it and this can only work successfully when the point of departure, the stated problem, is comprehensible and unambiguously spelled out.
See also the chapter on research design for computer-assisted analysis in di Gregorio and Davidson Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Lutfiyya, The Variety of Community Experiences: Family life and parenting in a family with disabilities. Antihumanism Empiricism Rationalism Scientism. Non-Euclidean geometry s Uncertainty principle Behavioralism Post-behavioralism Critical rationalism Criticism of science Epistemology anarchism idealism nihilism pluralism realism Holism Instrumentalism Modernism Naturalism in literature Nomothetic—idiographic distinction Objectivity in science Operationalism Phenomenalism Philosophy of science Deductive-nomological model Ramsey sentence Sense-data theory Qualitative research Relationship between religion and science Sociology Social science Philosophy Structural functionalism Structuralism Structuration theory.
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Qualitative Research Methods and Design / Practice Exam Exam Instructions: Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions.
RESEARCH DESIGN COMPREHENSIVE EXAM QUESTION Identify the qualitative research theory that is best for your key players, development, and critique.4) Explain how this theory guides research questions, methodology, methods, and desired uses of research products. Methodology (3 parts) 1.
The book’s quick-scan, question-and-answer format make it ideal as a supplementary text or as a ready reference for graduate students preparing for comprehensive exams and writing research proposals, undergraduates in affiliated programs who will not be taking a primary course in qualitative research methods, and researchers working across. Possible E xam Questions for MB Qualitative Research Methods. Compare and contrast grounded theory, ethnographic interviewing (Spradley-style), and cultural domain analysis. How are they similar in their assumptions about (a) how people think, and (b) what the goals of research are?
Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in a number of different academic discipline such as social sciences and natural sciences. Quizzes › Online Test › Skill Assessment › Research › Research Method › Qualitative Research Methods. Qualitative Research Methods. 20 Questions | By (Exam Mode) Number of questions. Topics for Preliminary exams in Research Methods: Quantitative Research Methods: 1) Be prepared to describe and discuss the overall logic of the scientific process. Be prepared to discuss the qualities that make good survey questions reliable measures, “Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches 5th edition” by.