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Research Paper on Vaccines

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❶Diseases such as these, which are either not greatly feared chickenpox or transmitted primarily through voluntary rather than involuntary contact hepatitis B , do not fit neatly into the typical justification for mandatory vaccination. Meanwhile California senators Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein have suggested that their state tighten the rules on the vaccination exemption statute.

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This possibility was publicized after a paper by a British physician who claimed to have found evidence that the MMR measles, mumps and rubella vaccine was linked to autism.

Studies were also done regarding the possibility of a link between the preservative thimerosal, which is used in some vaccines, and autism; again, no such link was found. People say that vaccines are linked to long-term health problems such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and autism.

All vaccines have possible side effects. Most, however, are mild and temporary. Adverse effects from vaccines are monitored thoroughly via multiple reporting systems, and there is no evidence from these systems to support these claims. Why is vaccination recommended if it can cause all of these side effects? Every vaccine has potential side effects. Typically they are very mild: Serious side effects are possible, however, including severe allergic reactions.

However, the occurrence of these side effects is extremely rare. Your doctor can explain the risks for individual vaccines in detail; more information is also available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While some possible side effects are serious, they are extremely rare. Vaccines protect against potentially fatal infectious diseases; avoiding vaccination raises the risk of contracting those diseases and spreading them to others.

Vaccines are tested repeatedly before being approved, and continue to be monitored for adverse reactions after their release. See our article on vaccine testing and safety for more information and details about this topic. The rubella vaccine virus that is included in the MMR measles, mumps and rubella shot is cultured using human cell lines.

The vaccine material is carefully separated from the cells in which is was grown before being used. Some of these cell lines were generated from fetal tissue that was obtained in the s from legal abortions. No new fetal issue is required to generate rubella vaccine. Improved hygiene and nutrition, among other factors, can certainly lower the incidence of some diseases.

Data documenting the number of cases of a disease before and after the introduction of a vaccine, however, demonstrate that vaccines are overwhelmingly responsible for the largest drops in disease rates. Measles cases, for example, numbered anywhere from , to , a year in the United States between and , when a newly licensed measles vaccine went into widespread use.

In about 22, cases were reported a drop of A similar post-vaccination drop occurred with most diseases for which vaccines are available. Perhaps the best evidence that vaccines, and not hygiene and nutrition, are responsible for the sharp drop in disease and death rates is chickenpox.

If hygiene and nutrition alone were enough to prevent infectious diseases, chickenpox rates would have dropped long before the introduction of the varicella vaccine, which was not available until the mids. Instead, the number of chickenpox cases in the United States in the early s, before the vaccine was introduced in , was about four million a year.

In theory, nearly any infectious disease for which an effective vaccine exists should be eradicable. With sufficient vaccination levels and coordination between public health organizations, a disease can be prevented from gaining a foothold anywhere; eventually, without anyone to infect, it must die off. A notable exception is tetanus, which is infectious but not contagious: Smallpox is unusual, however, in the set of characteristics that made it susceptible to eradication.

Unlike many other infectious diseases, smallpox has no animal reservoir. Another obstacle to eradication for many infectious diseases is visibility. People with smallpox were highly visible: Vaccination efforts could be focused based on the location of the cases and potential exposure to other individuals. As a result, tracking the spread of the polio virus is extremely difficult, which makes it a difficult eradication target. Perhaps most importantly, smallpox patients generally did not reach their highest level of infectivity that is, their ability to infect others until after the appearance of the smallpox rash.

As a result, quick action to quarantine infected individuals upon the eruption of the rash usually left enough time to vaccinate anyone who had already been exposed, and prevent additional exposures. Many infectious diseases do not allow for this kind of reaction time. Measles patients, for example, can become infectious up to four days before the appearance of the measles rash.

As a result, they can pass the virus on to many, many other people before anyone even knows that they are infected. Many people still think eradication is possible for certain diseases. Efforts are ongoing to eradicate polio and Guinea worm disease Dracunculiasis , with both having been eliminated in many regions, but remaining endemic in several countries.

Meanwhile, the Carter Center International Task Force for Disease Eradication has declared additional diseases as potentially eradicable: In the s, certain critics began to blame the testing of a live, weakened polio vaccine in Africa in the s for the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS.

Those behind the accusation argued that chimpanzee cells were used to create the vaccine, and that those cells had been contaminated with a virus that sometimes affects chimps: The accusations, however, were demonstrably false for a variety of reasons. Most notably, the weakened polio vaccine was not made with chimpanzee cells, but with monkey cells. Worried about the potential effects the virus could have on humans, Hilleman injected it into hamsters, finding that nearly all of them developed massive cancerous tumors.

But the initial panic this caused gave way in the face of future studies. Studies performed eight years, fifteen years, and thirty years after SVcontaminated vaccines had been given to children found that they had the same cancer incidence as unvaccinated groups.

No credible evidence suggests that SV40 has ever caused cancer in humans. Egg allergy no bar to flu shot. Thirty-five year mortality following receipt of SVcontaminated polio vaccine during the neonatal period. British Journal of Cancer. Disease considered as candidates for global eradication by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of Influenza with vaccines: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.

Exposing a child to wild chickenpox puts him or her at risk for a severe case of the disease. Article Menu [ ]. Vaccine Science [ ]. Biological Weapons, Bioterrorism, and Vaccines.

Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy. Careers in Vaccine Research. Ebola Virus Disease and Ebola Vaccines. Human Cell Strains in Vaccine Development.

Identifying Pathogens and Transmission Vectors. Malaria and Malaria Vaccine Candidates. The Future of Immunization. Vaccines for Pandemic Threats. History and Society [ ]. Cultural Perspectives on Vaccination. Ethical Issues and Vaccines. History of Anti-vaccination Movements. The Development of the Immunization Schedule. The History of the Lyme Disease Vaccine.

The Scientific Method in Vaccine History. Military and Vaccine History. Vaccine Injury Compensation Programs. Vaccine Testing and Vulnerable Human Subjects. Vaccine Information [ ]. Different Types of Vaccines. Vaccine Development, Testing, and Regulation. Vaccine Side Effects and Adverse Events. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases [ ]. Haemophilus influenzae type b Hib. Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B.

History of Polio Poliomyelitis. Vaccines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. The workshop brought together scientists and stakeholders from the autism community to increase knowledge about ASD prevalence, to learn from other conditions, and to share ideas on how to move forward to better understand ASD trends. An executive summary and the complete workshop summary are available for download here:. This was higher than prevalence estimates from other studies conducted at that time, particularly studies conducted in the United States.

However, the prevalence of ASD in Brick Township was within the range of studies that used more thorough case-finding methods among smaller populations. We do not know all of the causes of ASD. However, we have learned that there are likely many causes for multiple types of ASD. There may be many different factors that make a child more likely to have an ASD, including environmental and genetic factors.

It is currently the largest study in the United States to help identify factors that may put children at risk for ASD and other developmental disabilities. Understanding the risk factors that make a person more likely to develop an ASD will help us learn more about the causes.

Many studies have looked at whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder ASD. To date, the studies continue to show that vaccines are not associated with ASD. However, CDC knows that some parents and others still have concerns. Communication between the IACC and NVAC will allow each group to share skills and knowledge, improve coordination, and promote better use of research resources on vaccine topics. The program highlights the work done using Danish national public health data systems.

These systems are not found anywhere else. They include more than long-term disease and administrative registries. They also include the stored newborn blood samples of all children born in Denmark from onward. These systems are linked with one another. Thus, they can be used to make data sets with information on very large numbers of people. These data sets cover long periods of time.

Therefore, they can be used to look at health trends and disease traits. They can also be used to study less common risk factors or diseases in more detail and with more accuracy than can be done anywhere else. The findings from this study can help healthcare providers convey information to their patients about the ideal timing between pregnancies. Published December 9, Published June 6, The association between assisted reproductive technology and autism spectrum disorder New studies on the relationship between ART and autism.

Published March 20, Published January 2, Classifying autism in research studies Using standardized diagnostic instruments to classify children with autism to help find causes of the disorder. Published October 27, Key Findings Unhealthy weight among adolescents with autism. Published March 17, Intervention is likely to be more effective and less costly when it is provided earlier in life rather than later.

From birth to 5 years, your child should reach milestones in how he or she plays, learns, speaks, acts and moves. Each cell in the human body contains thousands of genes.

Genes have a special code called DNA that determines many things about the person. For example, whate people will look like and whether they are likely to have certain illnesses. According to the U.

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How To Construct An Effective Research Paper About Vaccines. Vaccines and immunization are controversial topics, therefore, it is not surprising that students have to write scholarly papers on this subject quite often.

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In their research papers on vaccines, medical students have to elaborate on the background and history of the origin of vaccination, tell about the pioneers in this field, who first took the liberty to use a virus of a deadly infectious disease in order to save the lives of their patients.

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- Research is responsible for virtually all the medical breakthroughs there have been- there are medicines and vaccines and cures and treatments and more life saving benefits being developed today- but an important factor to the development of medical advances is the inclusion of animals in research. Vaccine safety review--&--From research to practice and policy change--&--Antivaccination websites rely on emotion. Wayne Kondro wrote a brief article on vaccine safety, which was published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal.

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Even though vaccines are not percent effective, they are always monitoring for evidence that might show that there are any possible problems, says Karen Midthun, M.D., a director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, or CBER,’s office of vaccine research and review (Meadows). Immunization of Children Research Papers Immunization of Children Research Papers discuss the issue of childhood vaccination in terms of economics and the impact of the ability of the public health system to give the right vaccines to all that should have them.