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❶To consider Caliban a monster for misfortunes he has suffered would unfinished.

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Does Shakespeare Critique European Colonialism in The Tempest?
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Othello is more naturally predisposed to believe this "idea" rather than to engage in rational discourse in an attempt to find the real logic of the situation. It is also unclear weather or not the position of soldier and that of husband can be percieved as two seperate role's. Yet the two seem inextricably intertwined. Military operations are Othello's primary priority.

Othello had been a soldier since he was seven years old " So Othello was not a newcomer to the battlefield. Yet, Othello encounters a battlefield the likes of which he has never seen when he marries Desdemona and enters Venetian society -- the rules are different, the enemy has more cunning, and words are used for weapons.

Military service and marriage are not incompatible -- Othello has the potential to make a perfectly suitable husband as well as lover to Desdemona. Othello only self-destructs because he and his inferiority complex fall victim to the duplicitous and vengeful Iago on society's battlefield. Perhaps Othello's precipitous change from ordered general to chaotic killer occurs because he is black. Africans were starting to appear in London at the time of Shakespeare and were viewed with suspicion, to say the least.

It is not inconceivable that Shakespeare exploited this popular fear of the nature of these black Africans and portrayed Othello as a vengeful savage. Is Othello a noble minority with jealousy as his single fatal flaw, or is he an over- reacher whose pride causes his ultimate downfall?

I don't believe he is truely either. He is an outsider who has tried to believe he has been fully integrated in This featured The Tempest Essays is one of many example essays available on this topic. Since Laius, the former king, had shortly before been killed, Oedipus has been further honored by the hand of Queen Jocasta.

Now another deadly pestilence is raging and the people have come to ask Oedipus to rescue them as before. The King has anticipated their need, however. Setting The Fall of the House of Usher: The author uses it to convey ideas, effects, and images. It establishes a mood and foreshadows future events.

Poe communicates truths about the character through setting. Symbols are also used throughout to help understand the theme through the setting. Even more amazingly, he seemlessly ties the two together. As Europe begins to saturate New World soil, the three authors offer their accounts of the dynamic between the European invader and native other.

Though each work is unique in its details, they all share a common bond: Brave New World Significance of Title: In Shakespeares The Tempest , in act 5 scene 1, on line , Mira states: How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world, That has such people int! To say the least, this book has quite a few references to Shakespeare. This segment in particular is used, because the setting of the book is of a brave new world where almost everything is different from our current situation, and outwardly, every member of the society seems content in Othello - Tragic Flaw Othello - Tragic Flaw In Shakespeares Othello, Iago carefully and masterfully entraps Othello into believing that his wife, Desdemona, is having an affair with Cassio.

He does this through a series of suggestions and hesitations that entice and implant images in Othellos head that lead him to his demise. But what is more important is, he gives Othello the motive to murder his own innocent Desdemona, satisfying Iagos immense appetite for revenge. This theme of the double standard is one that is realized in most antiquated texts. In explanation, whatever action the white European male performs is exceptionable behavior, but if another character, like a woman or a non-European does the sa tempcolon The Tempest as a Study of Colonialism Te tempcolon The Tempest as a Study of Colonialism Tempest essays The Tempest as a Study of Colonialism For over a century, and particularly in the past twenty years, a number of interpreters have taken a very different approach to The Tempest , seeing in it the exploration of some particularly relevant political issues.

The English critic, William Hazlitt, was the first to point out in that Prospero had usurped Caliban from his rule of the island and was thus an agent of imperialism. Since t Europe Europe In Europe, the debut of the euro is widely hailed as the most important event affecting the international monetary landscape since the breakup of the Bretton Woods System in to , or since the Bretton Woods Agreement in , or maybe even since the founding of the Federal Reserve System in It has become a contest for European officials and commentators to see who can push the analogy back furthest in time.

His mother was an actor and his father was a doctor. When Poe was 2 years old his father disappeared. His mother, who was seriously ill in tuberculosis, took Poe and his sister to Richmond, Virginia. Poe's mother died soon after this. The two siblings became then separated and Poe was taken care of by the wealthy family of the Allans. Allans work the family had to move to England, where Edgar Allan Poe: Reflection of His Pessimistic Moods in His Work Throughout literature, an author's works almost always reflect their mood and character.

Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer whose short stories and poems reflected his pessimistic moods.

One of Poe's poems, The Raven, is about a raven that flies into the home of a sad and lonely man. This poem best expresses Poe's sense of despair and gloominess because the lite Life of Shakespeare Life of Shakespeare Around , a group of actors visited Stratford and put on a play before the entire town, with permission from John Shakespeare, the mayor of the town.

The people loved the play, especially the small children. All of them looked up to the actors, as they returned each year to perform different plays.

They had dreams of one day becoming actors, but only one of these children fulfilled this dream. Studying the events that formed our language is vital to understand not only why we speak the way we do, but it also enables us to understand who we are. It comprises French, Latin, German, Norse, and a few lesser known tongues. Before there was written English, our texts were primarily written in Latin, and were reserved to be read by only the Pious and Royal.

Sumer was an ancient region in southern Mesopotamia, located in the extreme southeastern part of what is now Iraq. The Tempest has only one female character, Miranda.

Other women, such as Caliban's mother Sycorax , Miranda's mother and Alonso's daughter Claribel, are only mentioned. Because of the small role women play in the story in comparison to other Shakespeare plays, The Tempest has attracted much feminist criticism.

Miranda is typically viewed as being completely deprived of freedom by her father. Her only duty in his eyes is to remain chaste. Ann Thompson argues that Miranda, in a manner typical of women in a colonial atmosphere, has completely internalised the patriarchal order of things, thinking of herself as subordinate to her father.

The less-prominent women mentioned in the play are subordinated as well, as they are only described through the men of the play. Most of what is said about Sycorax, for example, is said by Prospero. Further, Stephen Orgel notes that Prospero has never met Sycorax — all he learned about her he learned from Ariel. According to Orgel, Prospero's suspicion of women makes him an unreliable source of information. Orgel suggests that he is sceptical of female virtue in general, citing his ambiguous remark about his wife's fidelity.

The play was one of the six Shakespearean plays and eight others for a total of 14 acted at court during the winter of —13 as part of the festivities surrounding the marriage of Princess Elizabeth with Frederick V , the Elector of the Palatinate of the Rhine.

Adaptations of the play, not Shakespeare's original, dominated the performance history of The Tempest from the English Restoration until the midth century. Upon the restoration of the monarchy in , two patent companies —the King's Company and the Duke's Company —were established, and the existing theatrical repertoire divided between them.

They tried to appeal to upper-class audiences by emphasising royalist political and social ideals: Miranda has a sister, named Dorinda; and Caliban a sister, also named Sycorax. In , Thomas Shadwell re-adapted Dryden and Davenant as an opera of the same name, usually meaning a play with sections that were to be sung or danced. Samuel Pepys , for example, described it as "an old play of Shakespeares" [40] in his diary.

The opera was extremely popular, and "full of so good variety, that I cannot be more pleased almost in a comedy" [40] according to Pepys. Eckhard Auberlen describes him as "reduced to the status of a Polonius -like overbusy father, intent on protecting the chastity of his two sexually naive daughters while planning advantageous dynastic marriages for them. It opened with what appeared to be a tempest, but turns out to be a riot in a brothel.

Ariel was—with two exceptions—played by a woman, and invariably by a graceful dancer and superb singer. Caliban was a comedian's role, played by actors "known for their awkward figures".

In , David Garrick staged another operatic version, a "three-act extravaganza" with music by John Christopher Smith. The Tempest was one of the staples of the repertoire of Romantic Era theatres. John Philip Kemble produced an acting version which was closer to Shakespeare's original, but nevertheless retained Dorinda and Hippolito.

Kemble's Dorinda and Miranda, for example, were played "in white ornamented with spotted furs". In , a year after the debut of his operatic version, David Garrick produced a heavily cut performance of Shakespeare's script at Drury Lane , and it was revived, profitably, throughout the century. It was not until William Charles Macready 's influential production in that Shakespeare's text established its primacy over the adapted and operatic versions which had been popular for most of the previous two centuries.

The performance was particularly admired for George Bennett 's performance as Caliban; it was described by Patrick MacDonnell—in his An Essay on the Play of The Tempest published in —as "maintaining in his mind, a strong resistance to that tyranny, which held him in the thraldom of slavery". The Victorian era marked the height of the movement which would later be described as "pictorial": Hans Christian Andersen also saw this production and described Ariel as "isolated by the electric ray", referring to the effect of a carbon arc lamp directed at the actress playing the role.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Caliban, not Prospero, was perceived as the star act of The Tempest , and was the role which the actor-managers chose for themselves. Frank Benson researched the role by viewing monkeys and baboons at the zoo; on stage, he hung upside-down from a tree and gibbered. Continuing the lateth-century tradition, in Herbert Beerbohm Tree wore fur and seaweed to play Caliban , with waist-length hair and apelike bearing, suggestive of a primitive part-animal part-human stage of evolution.

John Gielgud played Prospero numerous times, and is, according to Douglas Brode, "universally heralded as … [the 20th] century's greatest stage Prospero". Peter Brook directed an experimental production at the Round House in , in which the text was "almost wholly abandoned" in favour of mime.

In spite of the existing tradition of a black actor playing Caliban opposite a white Prospero, colonial interpretations of the play did not find their way onto the stage until the s. Miller's production was described, by David Hirst, as depicting "the tragic and inevitable disintegration of a more primitive culture as the result of European invasion and colonisation".

This used a mixed cast made up of white actors as the humans and black actors playing the spirits and creatures of the island. According to Michael Billington , "von Sydow's Prospero became a white overlord manipulating a mutinous black Caliban and a collaborative Ariel keenly mimicking the gestures of the island's invaders.

The colonial metaphor was pushed through to its logical conclusion so that finally Ariel gathered up the pieces of Prospero's abandoned staff and, watched by awe-struck tribesmen, fitted them back together to hold his wand of office aloft before an immobilised Caliban. The Tempest suddenly acquired a new political dimension unforeseen by Shakespeare. Psychoanalytic interpretations have proved more difficult to depict on stage.

However neither was regarded as wholly successful: Shakespeare Quarterly , reviewing Freedman's production, commented, "Mr. Freedman did nothing on stage to make such a notion clear to any audience that had not heard of it before. In , John Wood played Prospero for the RSC , emphasising the character's human complexity, in a performance a reviewer described as "a demented stage manager on a theatrical island suspended between smouldering rage at his usurpation and unbridled glee at his alternative ethereal power".

Japanese theatre styles have been applied to The Tempest. It was staged as a rehearsal of a Noh drama, with a traditional Noh theatre at the back of the stage, but also using elements which were at odds with Noh conventions. Controversially, in the early performances of the run, Ariel spat at Prospero, once granted his freedom.

Wolfe in the outdoor New York Shakespeare Festival production of , where the casting of Aunjanue Ellis as Ariel opposite Patrick Stewart 's Prospero charged the production with erotic tensions. The Tempest was performed at the Globe Theatre in with Vanessa Redgrave as Prospero, playing the role as neither male nor female, but with "authority, humanity and humour The performance was in collaboration with The Imaginarium and Intel , and featured "some gorgeous [and] some interesting" [79] use of light, special effects, and set design.

The Tempest has more music than any other Shakespeare play, and has proved more popular as a subject for composers than most of Shakespeare's plays. Scholar Julie Sanders ascribes this to the "perceived 'musicality' or lyricism" of the play.

Two settings of songs from The Tempest which may have been used in performances during Shakespeare's lifetime have survived. The Tempest has also influenced songs written in the folk and hippie traditions: At least forty-six operas or semi-operas based on The Tempest exist.

In Act 3, a psychoanalyst, Mangus, pretends to be Prospero and uses situations from Shakespeare's play in his therapy sessions. This opera is unique in that the three vocalists, a soprano , contralto , and tenor , are voices rather than individual characters, with the tenor just as likely as the soprano to sing Miranda, or all three sing as one character.

There is an instrumental alter ego cello also for Prospero. Ballet sequences have been used in many performances of the play since Restoration times. Ludwig van Beethoven 's Piano Sonata No. But this story comes from his associate Anton Schindler , who is often not trustworthy. Stage musicals derived from The Tempest have been produced. A production called The Tempest: Percy Bysshe Shelley was one of the earliest poets to be influenced by The Tempest. The poem uses simple diction to convey Ariel's closeness to nature and "imitates the straightforward beauty of Shakespeare's original songs".

One writer who explored these ideas was Robert Browning , whose poem " Caliban upon Setebos " sets Shakespeare's character pondering theological and philosophical questions. Sequel to The Tempest , in This features a female Ariel who follows Prospero back to Milan, and a Caliban who leads a coup against Prospero, after the success of which he actively imitates his former master's virtues.

Auden 's "long poem" The Sea and the Mirror takes the form of a reflection by each of the supporting characters of The Tempest on their experiences. The poem takes a Freudian viewpoint, seeing Caliban whose lengthy contribution is a prose poem as Prospero's libido. From the midth century, Shakespeare's plays, including The Tempest , began to appear as the subject of paintings. In the late 19th century, artists tended to depict Caliban as a Darwinian "missing-link", with fish-like or ape-like features, as evidenced in Noel Paton 's Caliban.

The work attempted to translate the contents of the plays into pictorial form. This extended not just to the action, but also to images and metaphors: Gonzalo's line about "mountaineers dewlapped like bulls" is illustrated with a picture of a Swiss peasant with a goitre. The illustrations highlight the fairy-tale quality of the play, avoiding its dark side.

Of the 40, only 12 are direct depictions of the action of the play: Fantasy writer Neil Gaiman based a story on the play in one issue of his comics series The Sandman.

The comic stands as a sequel to the earlier Midsummer Night's Dream issue. This issue follows Shakespeare over a period of several months as he writes the play, which is named as his last solo project, as the final part of his bargain with the Dream King to write two plays celebrating dreams. The story draws many parallels between the characters and events in the play and Shakespeare's life and family relationships at the time.

The Tempest first appeared on the screen in In , Percy Stowe directed a Tempest running a little over ten minutes, which is now a part of the British Film Institute 's compilation Silent Shakespeare. Much of its action takes place on Prospero's island before the storm which opens Shakespeare's play. At least two other silent versions, one from by Edwin Thanhouser , are known to have existed, but have been lost.

Wellman , in The science fiction film Forbidden Planet set the story on a planet in space, Altair IV, instead of an island. Professor Morbius and his daughter Altaira Anne Francis are the Prospero and Miranda figures both Prospero and Morbius having harnessed the mighty forces that inhabit their new homes. Ariel is represented by the helpful Robby the Robot , while Sycorax is replaced with the powerful race of the Krell.

Caliban is represented by the dangerous and invisible "monster from the id", a projection of Morbius' psyche born from the Krell technology instead of Sycorax's womb. In the opinion of Douglas Brode, there has only been one screen "performance" of The Tempest since the silent era, he describes all other versions as "variations". It cut the play to slightly less than ninety minutes.

A episode of the television series Star Trek , " Requiem for Methuselah ", again set the story in space on the apparently deserted planet Holberg G. In , Derek Jarman produced a homoerotic Tempest that used Shakespeare's language, but was most notable for its deviations from Shakespeare. The film reaches its climax with Elisabeth Welch belting out Stormy Weather. Several other television versions of the play have been broadcast; among the most notable is the BBC Shakespeare production, virtually complete, starring Michael Hordern as Prospero.

Paul Mazursky 's modern-language adaptation of The Tempest , with Philip Dimitrius Prospero as a disillusioned New York architect who retreats to a lonely Greek island with his daughter Miranda after learning of his wife Antonia's infidelity with Alonzo, dealt frankly with the sexual tensions of the characters' isolated existence.

The Caliban character, the goatherd Kalibanos, asks Philip which of them is going to have sex with Miranda.

Susan Sarandon plays the Ariel character, Philip's frequently bored girlfriend Aretha. The film has been criticised as "overlong and rambling", but also praised for its good humour, especially in a sequence in which Kalibanos' and his goats dance to Kander and Ebb 's New York, New York.

John Gielgud has written that playing Prospero in a film of The Tempest was his life's ambition. According to Prospero, Caliban tried to rape Miranda.

However, ambiguity surrounds this claim for many reasons. Miranda took the time to teach Caliban aspects of where she came from. The attention Miranda paid to Caliban may have caused him to fall in love with Miranda. Due to Miranda being the only woman Caliban has ever known or has been in contact with besides his mother Caliban was more than likely only doing what he felt was natural, which was to reproduce.

Also, Miranda never confirms or denies the claim that Caliban tried to rape her, which adds to the mystery surrounding what happened between the two.

The dialogue does not hint at whether Prospero found Caliban and Miranda together or if Miranda told her father Caliban had attempted to rape her. There is a possibility that Miranda may have actually consented to the act considering the only two men she has ever seen are her father and Caliban. However, Miranda allows Prospero to treat Caliban so harshly and even treats him harshly herself. Miranda participates in this cruel behavior towards Caliban possibly out of fear of punishment if her father were to discover she had tried to engage in a sexual act with a native Hearing these words from someone Caliban has known and loved for most of his life leads his heart to harden even further.

Though Caliban makes a handful of mistakes over the course of the play deeming him a monster is unfair. The betrayal and abandonment he suffers at the hands of people who he truly felt cared for him are enough to harden his heart and cause him to lash out. The ambiguity of deciding whether Caliban is good or evil is a comment by Shakespeare on humans in general.

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The Tempest literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Tempest.

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Tempest Resources Please see the main Tempest page for the complete play with explanatory notes and study questions. Examination Questions and Answers on The Tempest Themes in The Tempest: Reality, Thought, Imagination Forgiveness and Reconciliation in The Tempest.

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In the essays "The Backward Voice": Puns and the Comic Subplot of The Tempest, by Maurice Hunt, and The Tempest as Romance and Anti-Romance, by Richard Hillman, the genre of the play is discussed in depth. Aug 23,  · Look at a few of the many passages in the play in which there is mention of noises, sound, or music. Focusing on one or .

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A+ Student Essay. To what extent does Caliban differ from The Tempest’s human characters? What might Shakespeare be saying by giving dialogue to an inhuman beast? At first, Caliban resembles a freak, whose greed, lust, and laziness contrast with the noble attributes of the humans around him. The Tempest is filled with music, containing more songs than any other Shakespearean play. Write an essay analyzing the function of the songs in the play in relation to .