Students should be encouraged to consider why activists may have considered violence a necessary part of their work and what role it played in their overall programs. Are violence and nonviolence necessarily antithetical, or can they be complementary?
For example the Black Panther Party may be best remembered by images of members clad in leather and carrying rifles, but they also challenged widespread police brutality, advocated reform of the criminal justice system, and established community survival programs, including medical clinics, schools, and their signature breakfast program.
One question that can lead to an extended discussion is to ask students what the difference is between people who rioted in the s and advocated violence and the participants in the Boston Tea Party at the outset of the American Revolution. Both groups wanted out from oppression, both saw that violence could be efficacious, and both were excoriated by the rulers of their day. Teachers and students can then explore reasons why those Boston hooligans are celebrated in American history and whether the same standards should be applied to those who used arms in the s.
An important goal of the Civil Rights Movement was the elimination of segregation. But if students, who are now a generation or more removed from Jim Crow, are asked to define segregation, they are likely to point out examples of individual racial separation such as blacks and whites eating at different cafeteria tables and the existence of black and white houses of worship.
Yet segregation was a social, political, and economic system that placed African Americans in an inferior position, disfranchised them, and was enforced by custom, law, and official and vigilante violence. The discussion of segregation should be expanded beyond expressions of personal preferences.
One way to do this is to distinguish between black and white students hanging out in different parts of a school and a law mandating racially separate schools, or between black and white students eating separately and a laws or customs excluding African Americans from restaurants and other public facilities.
Put another way, the civil rights movement was not fought merely to ensure that students of different backgrounds could become acquainted with each other. The goal of an integrated and multicultural America is not achieved simply by proximity. Schools, the economy, and other social institutions needed to be reformed to meet the needs for all. A guided discussion should point out that many of the approaches to ending segregation did not embrace integration or assimilation, and students should become aware of the appeal of separatism.
Du Bois believed in what is today called multiculturalism. But by the mids he concluded that the Great Depression, virulent racism, and the unreliability of white progressive reformers who had previously expressed sympathy for civil rights rendered an integrated America a distant dream.
Black communities across the country were in severe distress; it was counterproductive, he argued, to sacrifice black schoolchildren at the altar of integration and to get them into previously all-white schools, where they would be shunned and worse. If, in the future, integration became a possibility, African Americans would be positioned to enter that new arrangement on equal terms. Any brief discussion of historical literature on the Civil Rights Movement is bound to be incomplete.
The books offered—a biography, a study of the black freedom struggle in Memphis, a brief study of the Brown decision, and a debate over the unfolding of the movement—were selected for their accessibility variety, and usefulness to teaching, as well as the soundness of their scholarship.
NAACP , by Kenneth Robert Janken, is a biography of one of the most well known civil rights figure of the first half of the twentieth century. He was a formidable persuader and was influential in the halls of power, counting Eleanor Roosevelt, senators, representatives, cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, union leaders, Hollywood moguls, and diplomats among his circle of friends.
His style of work depended upon rallying enlightened elites, and he favored a placing effort into developing a civil rights bureaucracy over local and mass-oriented organizations. During decades when the majority of African Americans were legally disfranchised, White led the organization that gave them an effective voice, representing them and interpreting their demands and desires as he understood them to those in power.
Two examples of this were highlighted in the first part of this essay: There are many excellent books that study the development of the Civil Rights Movement in one locality or state. An excellent addition to the collection of local studies is Battling the Plantation Mentality , by Laurie B. Green, which focuses on Memphis and the surrounding rural areas of Tennessee, Arkansas, and Mississippi between the late s and , when Martin Luther King was assassinated there.
Like the best of the local studies, this book presents an expanded definition of civil rights that encompasses not only desegregation of public facilities and the attainment of legal rights but also economic and political equality. Central to this were efforts by African Americans to define themselves and shake off the cultural impositions and mores of Jim Crow. During WWII, unionized black men went on strike in the defense industry to upgrade their job classifications.
When the workers tried to walk off the job, the owner had them arrested, which gave rise to local protest. In , black Memphis activists helped support black sharecroppers in surrounding counties who were evicted from their homes when they initiated voter registration drives.
The accompanying documents affirm the longstanding black freedom struggle, including demands for integrated schools in Boston in , continuing with protests against the separate but equal ruling in Plessy v. The documents are prefaced by detailed head notes and provocative discussion questions. Lawson and Charles Payne, is likewise focused on instruction and discussion. This essay has largely focused on the development of the Civil Rights Movement from the standpoint of African American resistance to segregation and the formation organizations to fight for racial, economic, social, and political equality.
One area it does not explore is how the federal government helped to shape the movement. Charles Payne vigorously disagrees, focusing instead on the protracted grassroots organizing as the motive force for whatever incomplete change occurred during those years. Each essay runs about forty pages, followed by smart selections of documents that support their cases. He is the author of White: The Biography of Walter White, Mr. Logan and the Dilemma of the African American Intellectual.
He was a Fellow at the National Humanities Center in To cite this essay: The Civil Rights Movement: The movement encompassed both ad hoc local groups and established organizations like the. The March on Washington For many Americans, the calls for racial equality and a more just society emanating from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Aug.
Since the occasion of March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom 50 years ago, much has been written and discussed about the moment, its impact on society, How is it defined? What happened as part of the movement and why? What are its obvious features and its hidden aspects? Who are the actors, both famous and obscure?
These are among the prominent questions to keep in mind when we seek to understand the historical origins, changing meanings, and the current resonance of social and cultural Singers and musicians collaborated with ethnomusicologists and song collectors to disseminate songs to activists, both at large meetings and through publications. They sang these songs for multiple purposes: Nonviolent Philosophy and Self Defense The success of the movement for African American civil rights across the South in the s has largely been credited to activists who adopted the strategy of nonviolent protest.
Leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. School Segregation and Integration The massive effort to desegregate public schools across the United States was a major goal of the Civil Rights Movement.
Since the s, lawyers from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP had strategized to bring local lawsuits to court, arguing that separate was not equal and that every child, regardless of race, deserved a first-class education.
These lawsuits were combined
The Civil Rights Movement - The civil right movement refers to the reform movement in the United States beginning in the to led primarily by Blacks for outlawing racial discrimination against African-Americans to prove the civil rights of personal Black citizen.
The civil rights movement in the American South was one of the most triumphant and noteworthy social movements in the modern world. The civil rights movement was an enduring effort by Black Americans to obtain basic human and civil rights in the United States.
Free essay on Civil Rights Movement available totally free at territorios-luchas.tk, the largest free essay community. The Civil Rights Movement Essay - Historically, the Civil Rights Movement was a time during the ’s and 60’s to eliminate segregation and gain equal rights.
Articles and Essays. Women in the Civil Rights Movement Many women played important roles in the Civil Rights Movement, from leading local civil rights organizations to serving as lawyers on school segregation lawsuits. Their efforts to lead the movement were often overshadowed by men, who still get more attention and credit for its. Civil Rights Movement essay writing service, custom Civil Rights Movement papers, term papers, free Civil Rights Movement samples, research papers, help.