Having the appropriate manufacturing system for your product can yield a variety of benefits including the ability to maintain the high quality of your goods, being more efficient in your production processes and saving money across the board. The right system can also help you produce higher volumes, thereby meeting your production volume targets. Dorf and Andrew Kusiak, there are four types of manufacturing systems: Custom manufacturing, intermittent manufacturing, continuous manufacturing and flexible manufacturing.
Custom manufacturing is by far the oldest and most popular type of manufacturing system in existence. It also happens to be associated with both the highest-quality products and the lowest-volume efficiency. In the custom manufacturing system, each item is produced by a single craftsperson, who works solely by hand or with the help of a machine. When machines are used, they tend to be highly specialized to their task and cannot produce more than one item at a time.
This system will tend to have the highest unit cost for the product manufactured. As a result, custom-manufactured products are of the highest quality but are also the most expensive products in the market. The intermittent manufacturing system is designed to produce large amounts of a single product at one time. The products made using this manufacturing system are almost identical to each other and feature very little differentiation which simplifies the manufacturing process.
Customization is typically done post-purchase. Continuous manufacturing systems are designed to enable the mass production of a single product.
The product goes through an assembly line with different stations where parts are added or worked on a little further. This system first arose during the Industrial Revolution and is most closely associated with the Ford Company, which employed the system to produce Model Ts in the s. This type of production system is ideal when a company has very high volume targets since it reduces the unit cost of the product.
Most companies use more than one of these environments to get a single product out the door. This is certainly true considering today's use of the supply base versus the historical practices of vertically integrated companies.
Vertically integrated companies often had all five environments. Speeding up or slowing down the speed of the operation modulates differences in customer demand. There is little setup and changeover activity. If the peak line speed cannot keep up with demand, a second line is added. If demand is not enough for a dedicated second line, it is met by a second line operating in Discrete mode that also makes other products.
This environment is highly diverse. It covers a range from few setups and changeovers to frequent setups and changeovers. The products being made may be alike or highly disparate. The more unlike the products are, the longer is the unproductive set-up and tear-down time. Job shops rarely have production lines, they have production areas. The area may assemble only one version of a product, a dozen versions, or even a couple dozen.
If demand grows, the operation is turned into a discrete line and selected labor operations are replaced by automated equipment. These three environments, taken together, are a continuum for mechanical, electromechanical, electronic, and software-driven hardware products. At one end, manufacturing is continuous. At the other end, it is highly intermittent. The more repetitive production is, the more likely the environment is dominated automated equipment.
Production personnel rarely touch the product; their role is to oversee the equipment and assure it functions properly. Designers at the Discrete end, with Job Shop being the ultimate case of Discrete, must be versed in product design and know when to involve equipment instead of labor for production.
Designers in Job Shop environments generally cannot justify automated production equipment and must be expert in parsing the design so that components and subassemblies are made or acquired economically.
They must also be expert in understanding how their design can be manually assembled. The remaining two environments have many analogies to those just described. The product is usually described by a formula plus a bill of materials.
A manufacturing method of producing several different products using the same production line. Once an initial production line has run, a second product will be produced which increases the amount of productivity a company is capable of at one time.
In Intermittent manufacturing systems, the goods are manufactured specially to fulfill orders made by customers rather than for stock. Here the flow of material is intermittent. Intermittent production systems are those where the production facilities are flexible enough to handle a .
Intermittent manufacturing It is characterized by many variations in product design, process requirements and order quantities. If a small business is going to manufacturer products that are of a similar type, they can adopt an intermittent manufacturing method. Intermittent Manufacturing If a small business is going to manufacturer products that are of a similar type, they can adopt an intermittent manufacturing method. Businesses that manufacture items that are similar in nature, but have variations, are suitable for intermittent manufacturing.
Intermittent Manufacturing System is the best way to fulfill the customers needs, this is a process in which the goods are manufactured in accordance with customers needs. In the process of Intermittent Manufacturing System the flow of goods is intermittent so named. In continuous Production System, goods are produced on a large scale, so there are economies of large-scale production. Per unit cost: In intermittent production system, cost per unit may be higher because production is done on a small-scale.