Indigenous flora and fauna were replaced by domestic grasses and animals and domestic woodlands were lost. With depopulation, this process was reversed. Much of the primeval vegetation returned, and abandoned fields and pastures were reforested. The Black Death encouraged innovation of labour-saving technologies, leading to higher productivity.
Grain farming was very labor-intensive, but animal husbandry needed only a shepherd and a few dogs and pastureland. Plague brought an eventual end of Serfdom in Western Europe.
The manorial system was already in trouble, but the Black Death assured its demise throughout much of western and central Europe by Severe depopulation and migration of the village to cities caused an acute shortage of agricultural laborers. Many villages were abandoned. In England, more than villages were deserted between and Labor was in such a short supply that Lords were forced to give better terms of tenure.
This resulted in much lower rents in western Europe. By , a new form of tenure called copyhold became prevalent in Europe. In copyhold, both a Lord and peasant made their best business deal, whereby the peasant got use of the land and the Lord got a fixed annual payment and both possessed a copy of the tenure agreement. Serfdom did not end everywhere. There was change in the inheritance law. Before the plague, only sons and especially the elder son inherited the ancestral property.
Post plague all sons as well as daughters started inheriting property. Renewed religious fervor and fanaticism came in the wake of the Black Death. Some Europeans targeted "groups such as Jews, friars, foreigners, beggars, pilgrims",  lepers   and Romani , thinking that they were to blame for the crisis. Differences in cultural and lifestyle practices also led to persecution.
As the plague swept across Europe in the midth century, annihilating more than half the population, Jews were taken as scapegoats , in part because better hygiene among Jewish communities and isolation in the ghettos meant that Jews were less affected. According to Joseph P. Byrne, women also faced persecution during the Black Death. Muslim women in Cairo became scapegoats when the plague struck. Byrne describes that this law was only lifted when "the wealthy complained that their female servants could not shop for food.
The Black Death hit the monasteries very hard because of their proximity with the sick who sought refuge there. This left a severe shortage of clergy after the epidemic cycle. Eventually the losses were replaced by hastily trained and inexperienced clergy members, many of whom knew little of the rigors of their predecessors.
New colleges were opened at established universities, and the training process sped up. Flagellants practiced self-flogging whipping of oneself to atone for sins. The movement became popular after the Black Death. It may be that the flagellants' later involvement in hedonism was an effort to accelerate or absorb God's wrath, to shorten the time with which others suffered. More likely, the focus of attention and popularity of their cause contributed to a sense that the world itself was ending and that their individual actions were of no consequence.
Reformers rarely pointed to failures on the part of the Church in dealing with the catastrophe. The Black Death had a profound impact on art and literature. After , European culture in general turned very morbid. The general mood was one of pessimism, and contemporary art turned dark with representations of death. The widespread image of the "dance of death" showed death a skeleton choosing victims at random.
Many of the most graphic depictions come from writers such as Boccaccio and Petrarch. They died by the hundreds, both day and night, and all were thrown in And as soon as those ditches were filled, more were dug. And I, Agnolo di Tura And so many died that all believed it was the end of the world. How many valiant men, how many fair ladies, breakfast with their kinfolk and the same night supped with their ancestors in the next world!
The condition of the people was pitiable to behold. They sickened by the thousands daily, and died unattended and without help. Many died in the open street, others dying in their houses, made it known by the stench of their rotting bodies.
Consecrated churchyards did not suffice for the burial of the vast multitude of bodies, which were heaped by the hundreds in vast trenches, like goods in a ships hold and covered with a little earth. Although the Black Death highlighted the shortcomings of medical science in the medieval era, it also led to positive changes in the field of medicine.
Further, at this time, the importance of surgeons became more evident. The gene affects T cell function and provides protection against HIV , smallpox , and possibly plague,  though for the last, no explanation as to how it would do that exists. The Black Death also inspired European architecture to move in two different directions: The basic Gothic style was revamped with elaborate decoration in the late medieval period.
Sculptors in Italian city-states emulated the work of their Roman forefathers while sculptors in northern Europe, no doubt inspired by the devastation they had witnessed, gave way to a heightened expression of emotion and an emphasis on individual differences.
Images of intense sorrow, decaying corpses, and individuals with faults as well as virtues emerged. North of the Alps, painting reached a pinnacle of precise realism with Early Dutch painting by artists such as Jan van Eyck c. The natural world was reproduced in these works with meticulous detail whose realism was not unlike photography.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Black Death Jewish persecutions. Black Death in medieval culture. Constructs such as ibid. Effects of the black death? What are the long term effects of herpes Cultural Effects of the Black Death? Answer Questions Given that Churchill, FDR, and Gandhi were the greatest statesmen of the 20th century, who were the greatest statesmen of the 19th century?
How did the earth change before people inhabited it? Where was I before I was born? Why do racist white people say that blacks sold their own people as an excuse to why slavery was right?
Was Titanic built by drunken British people is that why it sunk? Do conservatives still oppose the New Deal? Why were Christians banned from reading the bible during the middle ages? What was Uranus called before it was discovered? The workforce had been destroyed -- farms were abandoned and buildings crumbled. The price of labor skyrocketed in the face of worker shortage, and the cost of goods rose. The price of food, though, didn't go up, perhaps because the population had declined so much.
The Black Death did set the stage for more modern medicine and spurred changes in public health and hospital management. Frustrated with Black Death diagnoses that revolved around astrology and superstition, educators began placing greater emphasis on clinical medicine, based on physical science. While schools initially had to close for lack of educators, the plague eventually drove growth in higher education.
New schools were established, sometimes specifically mentioning in their charters that they were trying to address the decay in learning and gaps in education left by the Black Death.
People who survived the Black Death era generally suffered a communal crisis of faith. Rather than becoming more religious in thanksgiving to God for their survival, people harbored doubts. They had turned to the church for an answer to the plague, and the church had been able to offer no help.
Additionally, priests, who, along with doctors, had the highest rate of contact with the diseased, also had one of the highest rates of fatalities. Several new heretical movements sprang up.
One long term effect was the population decrease. Once populated villages and towns were left to rubble and ruins after the black death hit. Large, working expanses of land were left to deserted wilderness, crops were left to rot in the ground, and cattle were left to roam around until they perished.
The Black Death had many long-term consequences. One was a series of vicious attacks on Jews, lepers, and outsiders who were accused of deliberately poisoning the water or the air. Lepers were singled out and persecuted.
Feb 17, · The long term effects of the Black Death were devastating and far reaching. Agriculture, religion, economics and even social class were affected. Contemporary accounts shed light on how medieval Britain was irreversibly changed. The Black Death is one of the most fatal diseases in human history and took its peak in Europe from to Half of Europe’s population was wiped out due to this disease and the short and long term impacts greatly affected the structure of Medieval Society.
Effects of the Black Death - The biggest effect of the Black Death was people's strained faith in the church. Learn more about the effects of the Black Death. Start studying AP World History Chapter Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Which of the following was a long-term effect of the black death on European society? they facilitated long-distance international commerce.