Such processes require little or no mental resources and occur without conscious awareness, enabling our limited resources to be directed elsewhere allowing for some tasks to be done at the same time as others, thus preceding to the development of two-process theories.
In an experiment participants were required to identify the colours that were used to spell out the names of other colours, as swiftly as possible the Stroop condition. In the alternate condition, in which participants tended to execute their response with greater ease, colour-neutral words were used e. It would seem that the ability to read forms an automatic response, which during the Stroop experiments interfered with the controlled process of naming the colour of the ink.
Through a variation of the Stroop effect, the present experiment investigated further the idea that automatic processing interferes with the information a person is consciously trying to attend. Rather than using colour words e. The research hypothesis was that participants would take longer to complete the condition where the words were colour-related than the condition containing colour-neutral words.
This is a one-tailed hypothesis. The null hypothesis was that there will be no difference in the times taken to complete the two conditions. Method Design A within-participants design was employed. The independent variable IV was a list of coloured words which consisted of two conditions. Condition 1 the experimental condition was manipulated to compose of colour-related words printed in a colour that was incongruent with the word. Condition 2 the control condition contained colour-neutral words.
In both conditions the participant was required to say aloud the colour of the ink that each word was printed in.
The dependant variable DV was the time taken to correctly identify the ink colour of each word within the colour-related word list. This was accurately measured to the nearest whole second by the researcher using a stopwatch. Controls were introduced to limit the effects of any possible confounding variables. To avoid possible practice effects of doing both conditions in the same order for each participant, the order in which the conditions were presented was counterbalanced.
Data on odd-numbered rows of the complete data set 1, 3, 5, etc. Each colour-related word was used five times within condition 1; to avoid causing a practice effect the number of colour-neutral words used in condition 2 was the same. The same number of words was used in both conditions thirty. The words used in the two conditions were matched for length. The different coloured inks were exactly the same hue for both conditions and presented in the same order.
The instructions given to participants in both conditions were identical. Participants Of the twenty participants that took part in this experiment, 10 were male and 10 female, aged between 18 and Sixteen of these participants were recruited from personnel at The Open University, or their family members and friends. The remaining four were selected from associates of the experimenter who had no knowledge of the hypothesis or the specific research sphere; all were informed that they would be taking part in a cognitive psychological experiment involving lists of coloured words, the resulting data would be used in a report to gain university course credits and that they could withdraw at any time.
Each individual signed a consent form thereby obtaining informed consent. Materials The stimuli presented in each condition a replica of which can be found in Appendix 2 consisted of a sheet of A4 paper on which 30 words, placed in two columns, were written in various colours of ink red, blue, green, yellow, orange and purple.
In the experimental condition condition 1 colour-related words were printed in a coloured ink that was incongruent with the word e. The words used were blood, sky, grass, lemon, carrot, and plum, each word appearing five times in each of its incongruent colours.
The control condition condition 2 contained colour-neutral words blame, ledge, grade, career, plan and sty. Each word began with the same letter as its corresponding colour-related word e.
The words were presented in no specific pattern, but the same in both conditions. Results were recorded on a pre-prepared response sheet. Verbatim instructions were issued to each participant.
Procedure Each participant was approached and asked if they would be willing to take part in an experiment that was investigating one aspect of cognitive psychology. They were informed of what participation would entail. If they agreed to take part, each participant signed a consent form Appendix 3 and was reminded that they could withdraw at any time. The age, sex and order of conditions were then recorded on a pre-prepared response sheet before each participant was tested individually.
The instructions for the experiment were read verbatim to each individual. They were told that they would be presented with two lists of words, one at a time, and that they should say out loud the colour of the ink that each word was written in as quickly as possible starting at the top left of the list working downwards and then proceed to the top of the right column.
To ensure they understood what was being asked of them they were shown an example sheet; once the participant confirmed that they understood what was required of them, either condition 1 or 2 was placed face down in front of them the order of presentation alternating between participants to avoid a possible confounding variable.
Clearly, different attributes of the words differentially affected the colour-naming response. Not only colour words but also highly familiar words had an interfering effect, but in a lesser degree. Even the arbitrary letter-combinations of the non-sense syllables created a significant rise in interference over the naming of colour in asterisks.
The verbal text affects the ease of colour naming. To make the appropriate motor-response, S has to expend effort momentarily to restrain the near-threshold irrelevant response. This effort may be reflected in the slowed reading time. Some studies are related to the Stroop facilitation. If the wrong or incongruent word interferes with the colour-naming, then the congruent word ought to speed performance.
It was found that congruent colour-word unit produces less interference than incongruent colour-word unit. Raz, Kirsch, Pollard and Nitkin-Kaner demonstrated that the suggestion to construe words as meaningless symbols characters of an unknown foreign language reduces, or even eliminates, standard Stroop interference in highly suggestible individuals. In other words, researchers concluded that, suggestion de-automatize word reading.
According to Raz, suggestion may instigate lowered visual system activation by reducing attention either to specific visual stimuli e. Augustinova and Ferrand , challenge the claim of Raz et al that suggestion de-automize word reading. They found significant semantically based stroop effect, which led to conclusion that word reading cannot be de-autmatized.
Semantic activation cannot happen without reading. That means, suggestion does not de-automatize or prevent reading, but rather simply reduces non-semantic task-relevant response competition. Experiment-wide manipulations of information: These studies include the probability of various trial types, stimulus set size, trial sequence and reverse stroop effect. Psychologists like Dalrymple-Alford found that colour naming reduced as more congruent trials were added.
It was first reported by Stroop himself. This effect occurs only after considerable training and is quite transient. This occurs mainly due to practice and training.
Many studies have proved that the Stroop interference is a direct consequence of differential practice. Thus variation in practice should have a direct impact on the task. Intuitively, extended practice with the Stroop task should lead to reduced interference as subjects develop a strategy for coping more successively with the task. Majority of the studies have observed this result. Some psychologists have examined the response modalities in the Stroop task.
The general conclusion of all these studies is that interference is reduced when response modality is switched from oral to manual. Many researchers have examined the relation between Stroop interference and some individual differences parameters. The general conclusion of these studies is that there is no difference between men and women in the Stroop task. Age difference- A life span study was conducted by Comalli where the sample consisted of Ss from 7 yrs to 80 yrs of age. They found the greatest interference in young children; interference declined into adulthood and then increased again with advanced age.
Hemispheric Differences- Studies by Dyer, McCown, Schmidt and Davis have concluded that the left hemisphere shows more interference than the right. Language Differences- In this field, studies were conducted on bilinguals. In studies conducted by Dyer and Lambert, the procedure involved naming the ink colour in one language but the words were written in another language. However, there have been no conclusive findings on these studies.
Relative speed of processing and automaticity view are two prevalent and preeminent views in the literature and they are conceptually close to each other. Words are read faster than colours are named Cattell, ; Fraisse, As Stroop explains his data, the associations that have been formed between the word stimuli and the reading response are evidently more effective than those that have been formed between the colour stimuli and the naming response.
Since these associations are product of training, and since the difference in their strength corresponds roughly to the difference in training in reading words and naming colours, it seems reasonable to conclude that the difference in speed in reading names of colours and in naming colours may be satisfactorily accounted by the difference in training in the two activities.
This speed difference is seen as particularly critical when two potential responses e. First, it is assumed that there is parallel processing of the two dimensions of the stimulus at differential speed. Third, there is a potential for priming of possible responses from several sources including preceding trials and other response set elements. Greater the attensive power, more the interference created by the word. According to Klein, attensive power, in the context of a colour naming task is a function of the meaningfulness of words.
In the Stroop task the Ss are not allowed to release the word response, they have to name the colour instead. This makes it necessary for the S to seek additional stimulation from the region for relevant perceptual information. This means that the colour naming threshold is assumed to be constant and reaching this threshold has been retarded by the arousal of a competing motor response. To reach it, the subject stimulates himself again with the colour-word combination.
Increase in the reading time is indicative of the time required by the S to stimulate himself again. Klein however has not specified the mechanism of restimulation. In condition I, Ss first read aloud the word and then named the colour of the colour-word unit. Ss in condition II read aloud both the words in reverse order of Condition I — i. If holding back the word contributes to interference, the interference in colour naming should reduce only when the word is allowed to come out first i.
The interference would still operate in condition II, when Ss were permitted to release the word, only after naming the colour. The relative frequencies of errors in the Standard and Double Response tasks also showed that colour naming was easier in condition I word-then-colour. The basic idea is that, processing of one dimension requires much more attention than does the processing of the other dimension.
Thus, naming the ink colour draws more heavy attentional resources than does reading the irrelevant words. Moreover, reading the word is seen as obligatory, whereas naming the colour is not. Words are read automatically and colours require more attention to be named.
More automatic processing interferes with the less automatic processing and vice versa. This description is based on the theories of La Berge and Samends , Posner and Snyder and many others. All of these investigations show Automaticity as a gradient that develops with learning. Thus, word reading was very automatic; the colour naming was much less automatic.
Most automatic processing could then interfere with less automatic processing, but not vice versa. The Stroop Effect is an interesting case especially because the two dimensions differ so much in how automatically they are processed. The basic idea is that perceptual encoding of ink colour information is slowed by incompatible information from a colour word. Colour words are recognized earlier and thereby more likely to distract the subject from encoding ink colour.
This view has been criticized by Dyer as relying on a questionable assumption about the rates of processing word versus colour information. According to Logan, stroop Effect is decision process gathering evidence. Evidence accumulates over time until a response threshold is reached.
Evidence from each dimension is processed at a rate governed by its weight. These weights determine each dimensions contribution to the decision. Total evidence at threshold is the sum of all evidence from all the dimensions. If the evidence from all the other dimensions is consistent with the desired dimension, the threshold and the processing for the desired dimension is reduced. However, if irrelevant dimensions provide evidence conflicting with the desired dimension, response speed will be slowed.
According to this model, processing occurs in a system through activation moving along pathways of different strengths. It proposes that cognitive processes can be understood in terms of networks that link together millions of units. Processing is performed in a system comprised of interconnected modules and within each module there are continually operating elementary processing units responsible for accepting input from the some units and then providing output to the other units.
Knowledge is represented as a pattern of activation over units which can change in time in continuous, non-linear manner. Processing occurs by speed activation along connections that exist within modules as well as between modules. For simplification, Cohen assumed that information flows in one direction i.
When the model is instructed to perform a task, it selects a pathway that includes some or all of the units in one or more modules. The set of connections in this pathway, specifies its strength and the choice of pathway, therefore it determines both the speed and accuracy of processing.
Individual units can be members of more than one pathway, allowing interactions between processes when their pathways intersect. Thus, if the two pathways are active simultaneously and produce conflicting activation at their intersection, interference results and if they produce coinciding activation, facilitation results.
Such intersections can occurs anywhere in processing and there can be multiple intersections. One of the features of this model is its incorporation of a clear role for attention. Attention tunes or modulates the operation of processing units in a pathway. However, attention accomplishes this tuning simply as another source of information would, it has no privileged status.
For example, there are two pathways- one for the ink colour and one for the word information — that share a response mechanism. Each pathway has a set of input units each of which connects to every intermediate unit. In turn, each intermediate unit connects to all output units. Processing begins with the input units and feeds upward to the response units, one of which will eventually acquire sufficient activation to exceed the threshold and produce a response.
The only other element is the task-specific attentional units attached to the task-appropriate intermediate units and capable of tuning attention. Parallel distributed processing approach — when s is assigned the task of reading words and naming colorus, two pathways are activated. One pathway is of naming the colour in which the word is written and the second pathway involved was reading the word.
Interference occurs when two pathways are activated simultaneously and compete for response and in the process affect the performance. In the latter condition, more conflict is generated. Hence, reading time and the number of errors increase. Stroop test it is a test of focus, distractibility, and impulsivity. There are circumstances encountered everyday that require the need to switch attention back and forth between two or more things. The need to focus or divide attention is largely determined by the demands of the tasks.
Such as, driving a car while talking on a cell phone.
- Describe Stroop's Famous Experiment and the Stroop Effect Strop Ridley wrote the article, known as the “Studies of Interference in Serial Verbal Reactions” in the year The article was based on a research that he conducted using colors to analyze the effects of interference on serial verbal reactions.
The current paper presents results of two experiments attempting to replicate with Polish speakers a Stroop-like interference of grammatical number with the counting task, first reported by Berent et al. () for Hebrew. Dont miss your chance to earn better grades and be a better writer!mechanics of writing a research report Stroop Effect Research Paper revise essay online free thesis statement generator for argumentative essayIn psychology, the Stroop effect is a demonstration of /10().
Stroop Effect 4/12/ CAL STATE FULLERTON Abstract This research is designed to study attention and automatic processing of the brain by replicating the Stroop effect experiments that was conducted before. The participants included 12 female and 6 male students from Cal State Fullerton. The Stroop effect was originally named after John Ridley Stroop and was published in The test demonstrates the difference in reaction time of naming colours, reading names of colour, and naming colours of words printed in different ink.