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The Greater Good; an Essay on Utilitarianism

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❶Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. They are given when the process is a unique idea, or it offers an improvement to an existing idea that does not infringe on the original patent and is itself unique.

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He disposes…… [Read More]. They seek pleasure and avoid pain in their assessment of the situation. Therefore, consequentialism is hedonistc and egotism. Using this argument, one could say that utilitarianism is more altruistic than consequentialism.

However, utilitarianism is not completely altruistic either. Utilitarianism is neither altruistic nor egotistic. However, it is difficult to call consequentialism altruistic. Some acts might have a hint of altruism, but there are few that consider the consequences of others before direct consequences for ourselves. Hedonism requires the absence of pain, in most cases. This is an open question to which there are no clear guidelines. Utilitarians are hedonists in that they consider pleasure to be the intrinsic good.

They consider pain to be bad. However, this concept can be challenged…… [Read More]. Abortion Philosophy the Utilitarian Debate. Such prohibition, Bentham contended, would be a contradiction to the preservation of individual rights. He even goes so far as to signal the necessity for a change in approach to contending with any questions regarding the prescription of rights, here channeled through the words of John Stuart Mill.

The remarks seem directed in their derisive tone at the unempirical thinkers espousing the Law of Nature as a singular lens for evaluating human rights. Zoos Are Categorically Utilitarian in.

Singer would also claim that there is no actual utility in abusing animals in this way, and that it does not promote the greatest good for the greatest number for either the animal or human communities. Even if an individual animal has no inherent rights as Tom Regan would claim , the human being has a moral duty to respect all animals with the capacity for suffering.

It is important to alleviate suffering, and therefore important to liberate the animals in their collective condition of oppression in an exploitative zoo. Tom Regan would argue that the exploitative zoo infringes on the rights of the individual animals -- as Regan does claim that animals have the same rights as human beings. Therefore, it is more likely that Regan would denounce all zoos including those designed for species preservation -- because Regan would not place any perceived utility before rights.

Regan's thesis is…… [Read More]. Kant's Theory Of Retribution Those who act criminally are required by the community to receive a punishment for those acts. To Kant, retribution is justified when it is an exact compensation for the wrong another person has done. Inappropriate punishment, on the other hand, is something which is arbitrary and more often than not, completely unrelated to the actual effect of the crime.

Therefore, it is morally unjustifiable to punish a person, while eye for an eye retribution, while it causes suffering, is justifiable because the harm done is repaid with an exact and related harm.

When it comes to the death penalty, Kant would argue that such a penalty is justifiable only when it is used to redress the taking of a life. The utilitarian framework can be used to evaluate the legitimacy of the death penalty from the point-of-view of net gain; does the punishment result in a…… [Read More]. Biblical Views of Science, Technology, And Business One of the more difficult aspects of trying to live a biblically-inspired life is that the Bible is, in many ways, a historical document.

It was written thousands of years ago and describes events that are, in many ways, very unlike the challenges faced by modern human beings. This is particularly true in the 21st century, when modern science, technology, and business advances seem to be, at times, in direct opposition to the Bible or biblical teachings. That view ignores the basic underlying premise of the Bible, which is that it is both a historical document and a living document. As a living document, it has the ability to grow with the advances of mankind.

In fact, it does not actually grow with mankind; on the contrary, as man's understanding expands to encompass more of the universe, as reflected in advances in science,…… [Read More]. Pinto Ethics Deontological and Utilitarian. Legally, forcing Ford to make costly payments to the families of the victims of its maleficent inaction was good for society as well as for the individuals who were harmed.

Only by increasing the hazardous potential of financial loss from acting immorally can the tort system truly protect consumers. Even in utilitarian ethical calculations, forcing Ford to make costly payments to victim's families makes acting as Ford did in the Pinto case 'wrong' even in terms of corporate profitability analysis as the company is potentially harming the profit margins of shareholders as well as unwitting drivers.

Of course, it could be argued that such an ethical rationale is undeniably influenced by the current litigious environment -- few companies would feel, in today's environment that they could…… [Read More]. Philosophy Human nature seems to be delicately balanced between destructive and constructive forces, which may wrestle and be in continual conflict. However, it is possible to resolve the conflicts inherent in human nature to create unity and harmony. Plato pointed out that the body and the soul represent the two opposing forces pulling human nature in different directions, potentially begetting conflict.

The body's appetites and desires for pleasure are pitted against the soul's desire for reason. Appetites include the most basic impulses of survival like hunger, thirst, and sex. Other aspects of human nature that can conflict include the aspect of aggression: Similarly, the body's appetites are good in the sense that they help keep the body alive, but they need to be tempered by reason to avoid problems. Happiness Principle ' Developed by Utilitarian.

However, despite the considerable improvement and sophistication provided by Mill to the philosophy of Utilitarianism and the practical usefulness of the 'greatest happiness principle' the theory still suffers from serious flaws. Ruut Veenhoven, a professor of Erasmus University, Rotterdam, for instance points out in an article that the 'greatest happiness principle' is particularly problematic when applied at the level of individual choice.

This is because we cannot usually foresee the consequences of our actions or whether they would produce happiness or pain but paradoxically the Utilitarian theory deems well-intended behavior to be a-moral if it happens to pan out adversely.

Mill's basic principle, assess the legitimacy of laws a requiring motorists to wear helmets, b preventing people from walking naked in public parks, c forbidding people to take drugs like cocaine or heroin, or d outlawing skateboarding in certain areas.

Mill's "harm principle" as stated in On Liberty could possibly be a legitimate reason to enforce wearing helmets for motorists, outlaw people from walking naked in parks, outlaw cocaine or heroin usage, and ban skateboarding in certain areas.

Yet, as Mill himself states, "The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others" p. With that said, one may be able to object to the application of Mill's "harm principle" in so far as it applies to motorists, nudists, drug users, and skateboarders for the simple reason that they are not necessarily…… [Read More].

Rule and Act Utilitarianism in. Whereas rule utilitarianism focuses on the relative social benefit of rules, act utilitarianism concerns specific ethics of actions rather than the rules governing those actions. In many respects, act utilitarianism can be considered an extension, or a refinement, of rule utilitarianism, because it provides a method of incorporating useful or beneficial exceptions to general rules that benefit society more than rigid or absolute adherence to rules.

Using the same example of vehicular rules of the road, there are situations that sometimes justify violating those rules, notwithstanding the fact that those rules are generally useful, beneficial, and necessary. In emergencies, the value of violating a rule in specific instances sometimes outweighs the importance of following those rules absolutely without exception.

In matters of life or death emergencies, such as fires or the need to deliver a baby, the value of delivering firefighting resources to extinguish fires as soon as…… [Read More]. Morality and the Claims of. Moreover, caring for her mother, the other option, would surely: Stuart asserts that the virtue that carries the most weight in this instance is having Alice care for her mother. Giving up her career for her mother would outweigh the "…virtues of perseverance, love of truth…and self-knowledge" should she decide to go forward with her dissertation Justice Crime and Ethics.

Justice, Crime and Ethics Prepping the President: Today's News and Tomorrow's Solutions. In prepping the president on the topic at hand, significant attention must be paid to the use of rehabilitation in corrections, which has proven itself effective in rehabilitating criminal offenders in a way that allows them to regain a productive life for the remainder of their sentence and beyond.

In viewing the status of criminal rehabilitation as well as the programs and policy considerations…… [Read More]. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage.

The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the year-old…… [Read More]. Attitude Change and Persuasion. Attitudes Functional attitude theories hold the central notion that people have attitudes for different reasons.

By understanding the different reasons that one has for an attitude and targeting these reasons can be the basis for being able to change an attitude. The basic attitude functions are: The knowledge function of an attitude refers to the need for people to assign structure, meaning, or order to their surroundings.

For instance, in studies of cognitive dissonance people need to assign order to a chaotic situation incompatible behavior and attitude and therefore bolster a particular attitude to do so. Advertisers have used this as strategic tactic for years when they target people who have chronic pain, depression, or some other particular condition that results in perceived disorder in their lives.

Morals, ethics, and the need to find structure in ambiguous situations serve this function in much the same way. Such attitudes provide a…… [Read More]. Ethics in the Emperors Club. Kantian, utilitarian, and Aristotelian views According to Kantian ethical principles, Mr.

Hundert should have allowed the grades of his four students to remain as they were, and not altered them. A Kantian ethical schema suggests that a person should behave as if he is setting a law for all time, not merely reacting to the specifics of a situation. A Kantian philosopher would say teachers cannot subjectively change grades simply because they believe that a particular student emotionally 'needs' to win more than another student.

Hundert allowed his personal feelings for Bell and Bell's improvement as a student to influence his decision-making, and hurt another student in the process. However, from a utilitarian standpoint, by showing Bell the importance of hard work and moral activity, a great service is done to society because Bell is the child of a powerful man, and will likely grow up to be…… [Read More]. Twenty-year-old Justin had been killed in Fallujah on November 13, , by a roadside bomb.

Ellsworth could do, the father felt, was to collect these e-mails that his son had written whilst in Iraq and fashion them into some sort of memorial. They had promised privacy to their clients and they could not break the promise regardless of the situation.

It was only after a Michigan probate court ordered them to release the e-mails that Yahoo complied. The case reveals two types of ethics. On the one hand epitomized the deontological way of thinking that norms of right and wrong exist and cannot be breached regardless of the situation. The judge, however, took the family's happiness into account and, by…… [Read More]. Pirate Steel Ethics Case Study.

One is the theory of rights, which is particularly imperative in the existence of an organization. This theory claims that all parties should be well represented and has utmost satisfaction. There should be no violation of rights for any of the parties. In this case study, all the parties should have information on the proceedings of the company. This is to avoid any of them being on the dark on matters of the organization. The top-level management has all the right to know the destination of their finances.

Violation for this is when there are unreliable reports on the purchases. There should be transparency in all the issues that deal with the top-level management, as they are the most answerable. The investors also have the right to know all the transparent issues for the company. Business as Defined by the. This theory is hinged on three principles: The first principle holds the argument that all holdings or properties freely acquired from others are considered justly acquired.

Lastly, an "injustice" committed can be rectified by giving the property back to its rightful owner i. John Rawls' theory of distributive justice contains within its argument the principles of liberty and difference. In his theory, Rawls argues that the principles of justice determine how the…… [Read More].

Mitigating Privacy Issues With Drones. For the sake of this document, however, this phenomenon will be explored solely through the usage and ramifications pertaining to drones. The ethical issues pertaining to drones primarily involve privacy.

Drones are a means of remotely achieving physical objectives by utilizing small, highly maneuverable objects that are controlled from vast distances. These objects first gained notoriety with their deployment in the United States military, in which they were used to conduct assaults and to obtain intelligence.

Although it is highly unlikely that drones will become available for commercial use for the aforementioned purpose, it is worth…… [Read More]. Therefore, the utilitarian would likely object on moral grounds to any late-term abortive procedure that would cause the fetus pain, even if the balance of objective moral good suggests that aborting a seriously defective fetus.

Other than the issue of causing pain to the fetus, the utilitarian position would also consider the long-term subjective experience of living with a severe defect, which might also be quite painful on more than one level. With respect to concern for the defective fetus, the utilitarian would likely object to any procedure that caused pain to the fetus during the process; otherwise, the utilitarian would consider late-term abortion in this case, in relation to the harm-benefit analysis to others, provided that the procedure chosen would incorporate the moral need to anesthetize the fetus.

Beyond the issue of the fetus' pain, the utilitarian would consider the emotional difficulty and economic harm to the mother and…… [Read More]. Is Abortion Justifiable According to Utilitarianism. Bioethics Abortion ranks amongst the most widely questionable subjects examined and discussed all through the world today. Is it accurate to say that it is legitimate?

Is it precise to say that it is not an ethical decision? These are simply a couple of the inquiries that arise thereto. One thought is that fetus removal is thought to be reasonable when viewed through the utilitarian viewpoint. The discussion that follows will contemplate on that. The premature birth deliberation questions if it can be ethically right to bring an end to pregnancy unnaturally BBC Ethics. Thinker Ted Lockhart offers a practical answer for taking care of moral issues that can help decide whether to go in for abortion BBC Ethics.

Lockhart proposes that we ought to "exercise discretion based on ethically acceptable values" BBC Ethics. Interpreted in a simplified manner this means that where we need to settle…… [Read More]. Moral Analysis the Food and. I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made.

This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products. There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons.

The most important of…… [Read More]. Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues. The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, p The principal difference between the utilitarian and deontological perspectives is that utilitarianism is wholly unconcerned with the underlying motivation for decisions.

Whereas deontological formalism values the state of mind of the individual, utilitarianism focuses on the ultimate consequences of the act, irrespective of motivation Russell, p Within the utilitarian ethical perspective, rule utilitarianism would promote the choice associated with the overall benefit to others and to society if it were adhered to religiously in all circumstances, irrespective of isolated cases in which the rule produced a negative result Russell, p For example, in a society where relative birth and death rates were such that the continuation of society were in jeopardy, the utilitarian perspective might require…… [Read More].

Ethical Issues in Law Enforcement. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind. A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney.

If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma.

Of the four categories of dilemmas: Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…… [Read More]. New Trucking Hours of Service. Off-duty time does not extend the hour period. Off-duty time is not included in the hour period.

Sleeper Berth Provision Drivers using the sleeper berth provision must take at least 8 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth, plus a separate 2 consecutive hours either in the sleeper berth, off duty, or any combination of the two.

Sleeper Berth Provision Drivers using a sleeper berth must take at least 8 hours in the sleeper berth, and may split the sleeper-berth time into two…… [Read More]. One of the main issues of contention is whether to researchers should direct their communication towards children or whether they should communicate with their parents directly.

In this regard, the study has focused on utilitarian and deontology theories in putting this issue into perspective. Concerning young kids, it is reasonable to direct research efforts of snack foods, toys and games to their parents because parents are the main buyers of such products. Nevertheless, researchers are aware that better results can be achieved through directing research messages to children, partly because children do not have the capability to analyze research findings and the underlying messages critically.

Similarly, children would want the products regardless of the research findings. While pressuring parents, kids substantially force their…… [Read More]. Ethics as With Darwin's Theory. From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many.

The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. In this work, Bentham also sought to specifically record the sources of pleasure and pain, as well as to create a scale upon which the relative effects of individual acts in producing happiness or misery could be examined. Notable among the Utilitarians to follow Bentham, the philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill made considerable contributions to Utilitarian philosophy, beginning with his succinct apologia for the doctrine in Utilitarianism The essay displays Mill's emphasis on rational calculation as the means by which human beings strive toward personal happiness.

Mill's remaining philosophical writings elucidate his Utilitarianism, especially in regard to a number of related practical issues, including women's suffrage, and legislative and educational reform.

Following his death, Mill's system was later expanded by his disciple Henry Sidgwick, who in his Methods of Ethics discussed the means by which individuals may endeavor to achieve moral action through reasoned behavior. Numerous other individuals contributed to the Utilitarian movement in the nineteenth century, including the British philosophers John Austin and James Mill J. Utilitarianism is a moral theory generally considered to have been founded by Jeremy Bentham, a 19th century English philosopher and social reformer.

It is centred around the concept of happiness, and seeks to promote it. The idea here is that all people seek happiness, and that it is the ultimate goal of all human beings to be happy. Therefore, according to classical utilitarianism, when a person wishes to act in an ethically sound manner he or she should strive to bring about the greatest possible amount of happiness for the greatest possible amount of people.

This is known as the greatest happiness principle. Another, similar idea is that a person should always strive, if incapable of producing happiness, to reduce unhappiness. Utilitarianism can be seen as a highly mathematical theorem, looking at the total units of happiness that a particular action gives rise to.

Imagine that the neighbour is desperate to find someone to exercise his canine companion, while your friends are fully capable of enjoying themselves without you. His ideas here are, really, quite simple. Naturally, it follows from this that he also felt that we should treat unhappiness as something consisting of pain. This view on happiness has led his particular brand of utilitarianism to be seen as a hedonistic theory.


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The essay displays Mill's emphasis on rational calculation as the means by which human beings strive toward personal happiness. Mill's remaining philosophical writings .

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Hapiness and Utilitarianism in Mill´s Essay - In Mill’s essay on utilitarianism, Mill observes that a great amount of people misunderstand utilitarianism by having utility and pleasure together in the same idea and concept. In fact, Mill says utility is described as a pleasure and an absence of pain.

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This essay will first give a brief background about the utilitarian view and then apply these views to the supplied questions at the end of the case study. Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a philosophical perspective that deals with ethics . Classical utilitarianism is hedonistic, it believes that happiness is the one ultimate good and unhappiness is the one ultimate evil but utilitarianism has changed slightly from this completely simpli /5(20).

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Nov 30,  · Words: Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Utilitarian Abortion Considerations: The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, p). Utilitarianism Ethics Ethics essay – Utilitarianism a.) Explain the main differences between the utilitarianism of Bentham and that of Mill. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that .