Otherwise, do not use a hyphen with a grade number. If several ordinal grades are presented in a series of compound adjectives, then use hyphens with each.
Sometimes these rules intersect in ways that may make a sentence look awkward; in the sentence below, it is correct to use a word for ninth and numerals for 10th and 11th , and although there is nothing wrong with this from an APA Style perspective, it may set off internal alarm bells for you.
Often the awkwardness can be resolved by rephrasing the sentence. Although this is not required, it may make you feel happier about your writing, and we are all for you feeling happy about your writing. For more on numeral usage, see Sections 4. If you have additional questions about how to write about grades in APA Style, leave a question in the comments section.
Posted by Chelsea Lee at This section provides a quick resource for citing references in papers using the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Watch our APA podcast. Download an APA overview.
Use only if abbreviation is conventional, is apt to be familiar, will save considerable space, and will prevent cumbersome repetition. For more information, see pages in the Publication Manual. Use figures for numbers 10 and above 12 of the subjects ; for numbers above and below 10 grouped for comparison 2 of 16 responses ; for numbers representing time, dates, and age 3 years ago, 2 hr 15 min ; for numbers denoting a specific place in a series, book, or table Table 3, Group 3, page Use words for numbers below 10 that do not represent precise measurements eight items, nine pages ; for numbers beginning a sentence, title, or heading Forty-eight percent responded; Ten subjects improved, and 4 subjects did not.
For example, five and two makes seven. There is an important exception to this rule though. When you group two numbers for comparison and one of those numbers is below 10 and the other is 10 or above, use Arabic numerals. For example, "8 out of 10 teachers recommend summer reading lists," is the correct way to write this statement. The APA format does not use an apostrophe when pluralizing a number. For example, if you were to refer to a decade, it would be correct to use the s, for example, instead of the 's.
Fractions require you to use some judgment. Common fractions such as one-third, one half, and one-fourth should be written out as such. Use a combination of Arabic and written numerals for large numbers.
A commonly used number rule in APA style is to write out fractions as words. For example, write "half" instead of 1/2. But, if a fraction is unusual, such as .
For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. You might also find help using the APA Style blog. Links & Files. Writing and Citing; Purdue OWL: Wiriting Numbers If i am referring to a chapter number, how do I write it correctly in apa? i.e. Referring back to chapter 3 (three).
In APA Style, the rules for presenting numbers apply to the presentation of grade numbers. This post will explain the most common formats. Grade + a Numeral. When the word grade is followed by a numeral, always capitalize grade and use a . VII. Using APA Style in Academic Writing: Precision and Clarity; VI. Using APA Style in Academic Writing: Et Al. V. Using APA Style in Academic Writing: Line Spacing; IV. Using APA Style in Academic Writing: Abbreviations and Acronyms; III. Using APA Style in Academic Writing: The Power of Commas; II. Using APA Style in Academic Writing: .
MLA Style spells out numbers that can be written in one or two words (three, fifteen, seventy-six, one thousand, twelve billion) and to use numerals for other numbers (2¾; ; 1,; 25,,). APA Style, on the other hand, generally uses words for numbers below 10 and numerals for numbers 10 and above. The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association offers guidance for writers and publishers in the social and behavioral sciences. In general, figures are used for numbers 10 and above, and numbers below 10 are spelled out. However, there are some exceptions.