Depending on the terms of the contract, the workers may not have the opportunity to correct their mistaken estimates of inflation until the contract expires.
In this case, their wage increases will lag behind the increases in the price level for some time. The higher the price level, the more these sellers will be willing to supply. The result is that the quantity of real GDP supplied by all sellers in the economy is independent of changes in the price level. The natural level of real GDP is defined as the level of real GDP that arises when the economy is fully employing all of its available input resources.
Changes in aggregate supply. Changes in aggregate supply are represented by shifts of the aggregate supply curve. Like changes in aggregate demand, changes in aggregate supply are not caused by changes in the price level.
Instead, they are primarily caused by changes in two other factors. The first of these is a change in input prices. Many final goods and services use oil or oil products as inputs. Suppliers of these final goods and services faced rising costs and had to reduce their supply at all price levels.
The decrease in aggregate supply, caused by the increase in input prices, is represented by a shift to the left of the SAS curve because the SAS curve is drawn under the assumption that input prices remain constant. An increase in aggregate supply due to a decrease in input prices is represented by a shift to the right of the SAS curve. This horizontal range implies an economy in severe recession or depression. Remember that Keynes wrote his General Theory during the heights of the Great Depression, so the range of AS that is associated with his name corresponds to such an economy.
Assume that you were running a factory during a severe recession with high unemployment, and you decided that you would like to increase output. You realize that, to increase output, you are going to have to employ more inputs, primarily more labor—however, a similar argument could be made about high unemployment of any of the other factors of production. You go to the factory door, open it, and find thousands of unemployed workers standing in line, wanting to work at your factory. How much would you have to pay them to get them to go to work for you?
Certainly, you would not have to pay them more than the going wage rate in the market, right? Essentially, you could hire as many unemployed resources as you would like without bidding up wages and prices, because of the substantial unemployment. The horizontal or Keynesian AS illustrates the idea of the economy being able to increase real output with no increase in the price level during periods of high unemployment.
In the Classical Range of AS, we are at or very near the full-employment level of output. This range is named after the Classical Economists who assumed that the economy, in the long run, would always achieve full employment.
Assume again that you are running a factory, only this time, the economy is at full-employment. You go to the factory door and open it to find nobody waiting in line. There does not appear to be anyone looking for a job because everyone already has one!
How much are you going to have to pay these workers to get them to do that? Most likely you will have to pay them more than they are currently making. As you bid up wages in the labor market to attract additional workers, prices in the economy will also rise, because now it costs more to produce your product. That additional cost is passed to the consumer in the form of higher prices, to the extent possible.
Attempts to increase output in the Classical Range leads to higher price levels in the economy but what about real GDP? Does it actually increase? Well, your output may go up, but the output of the factory where your new workers used to work will go down, so the overall output in the economy stays the same at Qf. In the Intermediate Range, we are at output levels that are below full employment, but not so far below as to constitute a deep recession or depression.
In this range, increasing output is possible, but only at the expense of rising prices. While that Keynesian Range is a rare short-run occurrence, and the Classical Range is the long-run steady state of the economy, the Intermediate Range is probably where we find ourselves most often in the economy. Depending on the state of the economy, any attempt to change the output of the economy will move us along a given AS curve.
There are factors that influence aggregate supply, illustratable by shifting the AS curve—these factors are referred to as determinants of AS. When these other factors change, they cause a shift in the entire AS curve and are sometimes called aggregate supply shifters.
The graph below illustrates what a change in a determinant of aggregate supply will do to the position of the aggregate supply curve. As we consider each of the determinants remember that those factors that cause an increase in AS will shift the curve outward and to the right and those factors that cause a decrease in AS will shift the curve upward and to the left.
Anything that causes input prices to rise will decrease AS and shift the AS curve to the left. Anything that causes input prices to fall will increase AS and shift the AS curve to the right.
For instance, if a particular input into the production process is readily available from domestic suppliers, it will generally be cheaper, holding all else constant cet. If for no other reason, transportation costs of delivering a domestic resource to a domestic producer will be less than delivering the identical resource from a foreign supplier. That does not even take into account the problems of getting a foreign resource such as duties and tariffs, political or social instability abroad, or other international disruptions.
Another factor that can influence input prices would be the market power of the suppliers of the resource. The more competition in the supply of a resource, the cheaper that resource will be, cet. If the resource is supplied by a monopolist or a cartel think OPEC oil , the price of that resource will be higher than if the resource is supplied by a more competitive industry think corn-produced ethanol.
Independent of its price, anything that makes resources more productive will increase AS and shift the AS curve to the right; anything that makes resources less productive will decrease AS and shift the AS curve to the left. If workers become more productive because of investments in physical or human capital, the economy will be able to produce more and the AS curve will shift to the right.
If workers become less productive because of outmoded equipment, insufficient training, or excessive union interference in their workplace, the economy will be less productive, and the AS curve will shift to the left. In brief, business taxes increase the cost of production and shift the AS curve to the left; subsidies decrease the cost of production and shift the AS curve to the right.
Government regulations also influence the costs of production. What does the equilibrium between AD and AS determine? Equilibrium is illustrated below as the intersection between AD and AS. Notice that in the intermediate range, there is a tradeoff between two of the key economic variables that concern US citizens: Typically, we would like both inflation and unemployment to be low.
In the intermediate range, however, if we increase AD, inflation will go up as unemployment falls notice that if real GDP is going up, unemployment is going down: On the other hand, if we decrease AD, inflation will fall but unemployment will rise. There is no way to simultaneously decrease inflation and decrease unemployment using demand side shifts. Do you think that decreases in AD have exactly the opposite effects as the increases?
Why do you think that prices would go up very easily but fall only slowly? Part of the answer has to do with the fact that it actually costs businesses money to change their prices think of printing new catalogs, printing new menus, recoding prices in a computer and on scanners, or sending a worker out to change the prices on a marquee. It is worth it to the business to incur this expense when the price is going up, but when the price is going down they are hesitant to take on the expense of changing prices!
During the s, a variety of factors shifted the AS curve to the left. The high inflation that was combined with a stagnant economy low levels of output and high unemployment gave rise to the term Stagflation.
When Ronald Reagan was elected President in , the inflation rate was Reagan employed supply side policies that were designed to shift the AS curve to the right and reduce both inflation and unemployment simultaneously. Only by supply side policies can you decrease both inflation and unemployment at the same time.
By the time that Reagan left office eight years later, the inflation rate in the economy was 4. When the AD curve intersects the AS curve in the Keynesian Range or in the Intermediate Range such that output is below Qf, there exists what is called a recessionary gap.
The gap represents the amount of government spending that would be necessary to shift the AD to the right enough to bring output to Qf. In the Keynesian Model, the magnitude of the shift in AD will depend on the size of the multiplier. For example, if the multiplier is 2. So if the AD needs to be shifted to the right by million dollars to get to Qf and the multiplier is 2. Conversely, if the AD needs to be shifted to the left to get to Qf, there is an inflationary gap and the same multiplier principles would apply.
The changes in government spending that would close an inflationary or recessionary gap are applications of fiscal policy, which is the topic of our next lesson. Course Introduction Section Introduction to Macroeconomics Introduction to Macroeconomics Section Lesson 04 Section Economic Growth in the U.
Lesson 07 Section Aggregate Supply Aggregate Supply Section Equilibrium Equilibrium Section Government Spending or Taxes? Lesson 10 Section Why are there so many interest rates?
Lesson 11 Section Summary Summary Lesson 12 Section Trade Importing and Exporting Services Section Conclusion Conclusion Course Conclusion Section Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Section Aggregate Demand As discussed in the previous lesson, the aggregate expenditures model is a useful tool in determining the equilibrium level of output in the economy.
Wages affect the short-run aggregate supply curve, but not the long-run aggregate supply curve. Technology: Improvements in production techniques, often embodied in product inventions and innovations, is a prime example of a resource quality determinant.
Determinants of Aggregate Supply Changes in labor force: Anything that causes the amount of workers to increase in an economy will cause aggregate supply to increase or shift to the right. If the labor force decreases, the overall supply of .
Determinants of aggregate supply This graph shows an increase in aggregate supply in a hypothetical economy where the currency is the dollar. Specifically, the short-run aggregate supply curve () shifts to the right from to, causing the quantity of output supplied at a price level of to rise from $ billion to $ billion%(2). Learn aggregate supply determinants with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of aggregate supply determinants flashcards on Quizlet.
Chapter Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Analysis Yulei Luo SEF of HKU March 13, Learning Objectives territorios-luchas.tkfy the determinants of aggregate demand and distinguish between a movement along the aggregate demand curve and a shift of the curve. I Short-run aggregate supply curve (SRAS): A curve showing. The determinants of aggregate supply: a) are consumption, investment, government, and net export spending. b) explain why real domestic output and the price level are directly related. c) explain the three distinct ranges of the aggregate supply curve. d) include input prices and resource productivity.