Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to achieve intended goals. The ability EI model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and predictive validity in the workplace. Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires attunement to social norms. This and other similar problems have led some cognitive ability experts to question the definition of EI as a genuine intelligence.
In a study by F?? The test contains questions but it was found after publishing the test that 19 of these did not give the expected answers. This has led Multi-Health Systems to remove answers to these 19 questions before scoring, but without stating this officially. Motivation — being driven to achieve for the sake of achievement. Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI.
Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance.
Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. These tools developed by Goleman and Boyatzis provide a behavioral measure of the Emotional and Social competencies. The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which was created in and which can be taken as a self-report or degree assessment. This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured by self report as opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities, which have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement.
Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework. An alternative label for the same construct is trait emotional self-efficacy. The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman model discussed above. The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that lies outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability. This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it.
None of these assess intelligence, abilities, or skills as their authors often claim , but rather, they are limited measures of trait emotional intelligence. One of the more comprehensive and widely researched measures of this construct is the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire TEIQue , which was specifically designed to measure the construct comprehensively and is available in many languages.
The test encompasses 15 subscales organized under four factors: The psychometric properties of the TEI Que were investigated in a study on a French-speaking population, where it was reported that TEI Que scores were globally normally distributed and reliable.
As expected, TEIQue scores were positively related to some of the Big Five personality traits extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness as well as inversely related to others alexithymia, neuroticism.
A number of quantitative genetic studies have been carried out within the trait EI model,which have revealed significant genetic effects and heritabilities for all trait EI scores. Two recent studies one a meta-analysis involving direct comparisons of multiple EI tests yielded very favorable results for the TEIQue. It can be instrumental in many areas in the work place and can achieve organizational development.
On the basis of various researches, psychologists have concluded that in the present fast-changing business environment, one needs more than just brain to run the business. They argue that managers must get in touch with their emotions and feelings for effective decision making and problem solving in business.
Some of the immediate benefits of EI is increasing productivity, speeding up adaption to change, developing leadership skills, stimulating creativity and cooperation, responding effectively to competition, encouraging innovative thinking, improving work environment, reducing stress level and frustration, and developing sense of competence.
All these can be achieved by applying EI in the following areas: These positions are at different levels of the organization and in different functional areas. While filling the various organizational positions, an attempt is made to match individuals and jobs.
Recent emphasis in recruitment and selection process is being put on EI because of its contribution to professional success. Because of this reason, many psychologists have made an attempt to find out the level of EI required for different types of jobs so that there is match between employees and their jobs. Jobs which require high interaction with people like jobs of psychiatrist, human services worker, social worker etc. High EI is very relevant for improving the quality of work life. In this respect, EI acts in the following ways: Credibility is built by what one says and does.
When there is a difference between what one says and does, credibility gap exists. Credibility of a person is reflected in the following features: High EI on the part of the person leads to effectiveness. According to Goleman, various experts in leadership development offer their advice based on inference, experience, and instinct and note based on scientific data. A leader with high EI has the following characteristics: Communication is effective when sender and receiver of the message under the communication process attach the same meaning to it.
EI helps in the perceiving the meaning of any message in its correct perspective. EI helps in avoiding such a distortion in communication, thereby making communication effective. EI help in choosing the most desirable way of overcoming frustration. The person with high EI tries to rationalize the factors causing frustration and to change the structure of these factors to the extent possible.
This awareness helps in bringing the parties involved in a conflict to the real issue breaking down the emotional vulnerability.
When the parties to conflict do not bring their emotions to the conflict, they are in a position to understand the real issues in the conflict and the conflict is resolved immediately. Workplace bullying can include such tactics as verbal, nonverbal, psychological, physical abuse and humiliation. This type of aggression is particularly difficult because, unlike the typical forms of school bullying, workplace bullies often operate within the established rules and policies of their organization and their society.
Bullying in the workplace is in the majority of cases reported as having been perpetrated by someone in authority over the target. However, bullies can also be peers, and on occasion can be subordinates.
Bullying can be covert or overt. It may be missed by superiors or known by many throughout the organization. Negative effects are not limited to the targeted individuals, and may lead to a decline in employee morale and a change in company culture. Workplace bullying, can be seen as a continual purposeful behavior that sets bullying behavior apart from in-civil treatment Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, and Cooper, As these definitions above suggest along with the current literature, there are many different forms and characteristics which define workplace bullying.
Mikkelsen and Einarsen reported that experiences from workplace bullying can be compared to that of losing a love done due to an unexpected death. Workplace bullying can appear in many forms and characteristics. These forms and characteristics include Leymann, ; Koonin and Green, One suggestion proposed when narrowing the scope of characteristics, may be for researchers to collaborate and come to a concise consensus as to what forms and characteristics exactly identify the face of workplace bullying.
Gary and Ruth Namie, could work towards uniting forces with similar organizations, such as those in the United Kingdom. By establishing connections among organizations, this could potentially translate into a significant increase relating to awareness of workplace bullying and also further define what forms and characteristics exactly define workplace bullying.
One might look to contribute the rise and prevalence of workplace bullying could perhaps be linked to the aspect of competitiveness among the United States and Western workplace culture Duffy, Duffy ,believes the ideology centering on competition and being number one has spawned many overly competitive workplaces. According to Duffy , competitiveness as a trait has spawned further traits such as, ruthlessness in organizational workplaces.
Not only have these traits developed in organizational culture, but these traits are increasingly being swept into the values of organizations.
Expanding on these newly forming traits and values embedded in organizations, further research could explore if bullying incidents have risen over the last number of years due to globalization and the financial crisis. Kearns, McCarthy, and Sheehan , offer that the prevalence of workplace bullying may exist due to when organizations restructure. Organizational restructuring, will thus produce eminent threats of job loss and uncertainty among workers.
Kearns, McCarthy, and Sheehan , further argue that organizational restructuring can foster workplace bullying due to the insecurities of employees, due to potential job losses. Van Heugten ,conducted a grounded survey into the impacts and interventions among social workers bullied in the workplace, and found that of the 17 social workers involved in the study 13 women and 4 men , organizations, were identified as the major culprit in permitting workplace bullying to rein supreme.
Psychological harassment is a heterogeneous phenomenon. Each bullying action shows a different frequency, has different determinant motivations e. The interaction of three types of antecedents phase 1 can develop psychological harassment behaviour phase 2 , which creates response from the victim and the organisation phase 3 , and produces three types of effects phase 4.
But, it is also a unilinear process. For instance, the antecedents phase 1 can directly influence the responses phase 3 of an individual e. For example, the personality of the victim can influence the nature of the individual response, or the culture of the firm can influence the characteristic of the organisational response. In the same way, the antecedents phase 1 can directly influence the effects phase 4.
For instance, the personality of the victim can influence the psychological harassment health effects. In a series of longitudinal studies, it was shown that people can change their EI competencies over two to five years Boyatzis, Wong and Law working with different samples have found that, age is positively correlated with emotional intelligence across different job situations. Kafetsios had reported in his study among adults aged between years, that older participants scored higher on three out of four branches of EI i.
This study supports the view that emotional intelligence develops with age. Srivastava and Bharamanaikar concluded from their study among the sample of Indian army officers regarding the relationship between EI and their age, that EI had increased with age.
Also, self-awareness allows leaders to sense the emotions of others and use them in the right direction. Therefore, self-aware leaders often build strong working teams. It is a feature of a strong and effective leader or a manager. For example, in many school I had to do many projects where I was required to work with other group members.
Any group project is a challenge because of different working styles and approaches to complete a certain assignment. However, once in my group, I was working with a person who demonstrated confidence and intelligence.
On our first group meeting, she assigned each member of a group a task to complete by deadline. Even though, some members performed weak results on their individual tasks, the leader of our group managed to incorporate others and complete their part more thoroughly.
Self-awareness is a great quality of a leader. It is a strong desire to understand and work with others in cooperative manner. Moreover, it is an ability to look for solutions rather than focus on a problem. In a workplace it is an essential quality of a true leader or a manager who has to work with people on a daily basis. A self-aware leader knows how to create a cooperative atmosphere and emphasize an impact of each member. Emotional Intelligence Essay Emotional intelligence proved to be an important component in leadership.
Self-Awareness and Personal Development. In Wright State University.
This free Business essay on Essay on emotional intelligence is perfect for Business students to use as an example.
This essay was produced by one of our professional writers as a learning aid to help you with your studies. Introduction. The emotional intelligence field is a very new area of study in psychological research.
Emotional Intelligence: Short Essay on Emotional Intelligence! Emotional intelligence is a new concept developed by Dr John Mayer and Dr Peter Salovey () from American University. However, it was popularised by American Psychologist Daniel Goleman (). Emotional intelligence is defined as “one’s ability to know, feel and . Free emotional intelligence papers, essays, and research papers.
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