The Journal of Educational Research, 97 3. Chronicle of Higher Education. University Course Work to Order. Ghostwriting an Ongoing Problem in Medical Literature. Analyses of 10 North-American college websites. System, 31 2 , The majority of students who employ online ghostwriting services will locate their chosen provider by way of search engine. Specific keywords and phrases reveal a broad, varied, and seemingly endless set of relevant search results.
The following keywords and all permutations thereupon can be used to dive headlong into the world of online ghostwriting:. The alphabetical index below is an exhaustive, though not necessarily all-inclusive, listing of ghostwriting services and essay mills in operation as of November, The sites included here encompass a wide array of services from free-standing, independent paper-writing services to those which are affiliated with larger essay mill networks.
Sites included in this index are headquartered throughout the globe, with particular concentration in the United States and the United Kingdom. Beyond the common thread of providing custom essay-writing services to students, the sites included here run the gamut in terms of focus, target audience, brand management, and professionalism. Each site presents itself as a legitimate academic service, but makes little effort to conceal its intent to provide ghostwritten work to students.
By direct contrast, sites like E-Cheat or Phuck School have taken a decidedly more explicit approach to representing their services. Thesis Statements targets students struggling with large-scale, graduate, and post-graduate projects, while E-Coursework appeals to students in online courses. Based on its chosen font and imagery, Get A Paper seems designed to capitalize on the Beatlemania of 50 years ago, whereas Essaypedia takes a far more current strategy by marketing itself to hipsters.
Sites like 12, Papers and 15, Papers, which both appear to be affiliated with the same broader network, use large databases of recycled essays in order to attract custom-paper buyers. Sites like Academic Mythology Papers and Anthropology Papers focus on assignments of a specific discipline; however, it also appears likely that many of these subject-specific sites are affiliated with general providers of academic research.
In sum, this resource includes links to more than ghostwriting websites in operation today. That figure renders this the single largest and most current index of such services available online today. A Level Essays members.
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I was a freelance writer by intent but a ghostwriter by trade. Defining Academic Ghostwriting A discussion on academic ghostwriting requires some definition. The Players As noted above, Appendix B lists several hundred operational ghostwriting sites. Find Free Papers is, for example, a Japanese custom paper website presented entirely in Chinese characters Another example below is a service that explicitly targets students who are struggling to learn the English language.
As with any industry, companies exist to appeal to every subset of potential customers. Pricing Most companies employ a similar pricing structure, with rates varying based on two major factors: A writer-manager will send assignments directly to a writer based on declared areas of expertise or, during busy season, sheer availability. Assignments will come with instructions, deadline, and amount of compensation.
The prices for ghostwritten papers do not include the conduction of a primary research. Please contact our Support Team when you need to know more about our pricing policy. We are rather flexible and are ready to discuss the cost of your personal order at any time. This is the main reason why we have developed the system of lifetime discounts that works for all returning clients.
The code will allow cutting down expenses on every new task depending on how much was spent before:. Please remember that the total sum includes all orders that are completed and approved. Every time you decide to buy ghostwritten papers for cheap, you can feel safe and confident. We are proud of delivering pieces before the final terms and our quality rate now equals 8. It allows requesting a refund at any stage of task processing if things go wrong.
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Relatively subtle changes to assessment tasks can be enough to alert markers to cheating. Case studies, contexts, data sets, and actual items can be changed while assessing the same outcomes. When I worked as a ghostwriter, lazy students helped me to make my living but it was the lazy professors that made my life easier. Even just 20 years ago, the risks of reusing the same basic assignment or exam were modest. There have always been on-campus repositories of completed assignments available for student purchase.
This is not to suggest that the ghostwriter will struggle to complete an assignment that is otherwise unique and original in nature. To say it simply, a generic assignment begets a generic essay. If this is all an instructor seeks from his or her students, said instructor makes it nearly impossible to differentiate between the work of a pupil and the work of a person who has never set a foot in the lecture hall. If, by contrast, one designs materials, assignments and exams with thought, care, and specificity, one has much better odds of spotting the work of an outsider.
Class time should be used to challenge students with unique and fun writing exercises. There are a lot of ways to integrate this strategy into an existing curriculum. Assignments can be formal and woven into the grading structure or they can simply be loosely defined writing activities designed to promote critical thinking. The important thing is that these assignments will require students to write thoughtfully and uniquely on course-relevant subjects, providing the instructor with readily verifiable writing samples throughout a semester.
No matter how convincingly a ghostwriter writes on a given subject, this approach provides a document whose authorship is not in question as a point of comparison.
For assignments of greater depth, a balance between in-class and out-of-class draft-writing offers a measure of oversight even as the student pursues an assignment independently. The caveat with this strategy is that there may be nothing stopping the student from outsourcing each and every draft of the assignment. However, using the multi-draft process can stretch an assignment out across weeks or months.
This results in a greater length of exposure for the cheating student. Instead of the once-and-done security of getting away with a single ghostwritten assignment, each student knows that his or her work will be held up to sustained and ongoing scrutiny. By inserting one-on-one conferences into this draft process, the instructor can heighten this scrutiny by requiring each student to defend the approach, argument, and decisions comprising the written work.
This is also an opportunity to challenge students to craft unique arguments based on course content. This challenge may even strain the credibility of submitted assignments to the point of making them more detectable. In other words, the assignment instructs the student to write about a life-changing experience and the customer leaves me, the ghostwriter, with the power to define this life-changing experience.
Naturally, not every subject or discipline lends itself to personalization. Most ghostwriters have no problem with a little creative writing but, again, this approach gives an educator the chance to spot a mismatch between a student and the written work. Just as experienced ghostwriters become accustomed to seeing the exact same assignments over and over, they also get accustomed to seeing the same sources and course materials again and again. Instructors can reduce the ease with which an outsider can replicate old assignments by updating course materials and creating new assignments on an annual basis.
Ghostwriters rely on materials that are readily available online and prefer the efficiency of assignments that can be summoned from memory and experience. In addition to creating unique course materials, a course should be designed to distinguish the in-class experience from the experience of reading about something on Wikipedia.
Most texts are readily available online. By contrast, a lecture, a class discussion and the experience of being a part of both should be something unique and impossible to replicate. Naturally, if they can get it on the Internet, so can any ghostwriter. The goal is obviously not to eliminate, supersede, or overlook the standard texts. The classics are important. But differentiating what happens in a classroom and calling for written work that reflects this differentiation do create a genuine challenge for the ghostwriter.
Predictable testing methods i. Multiple-choice, machine-graded exams help the student differentiate between reporting to class on test day and outsourcing take-home writing work.
Merging essay-writing and test-taking removes this impression. Instructors can create mixed format tests that include multiple-choice, essay questions, short-answer questions, etc. This approach requires the student to demonstrate writing capacity during in-class testing. Once again, this approach results in the creation of a written document that one can be certain originated from the student in question.
This forms a good basis for comparison with suspicious take-home work and—insofar as it also might give the student pause before submitting ghostwritten work—also makes an excellent segue into our discussion on deterrence. Deterrence refers to ways of diminishing the inclination, motive, or desire to purchase a ghostwritten paper. A Research in Higher Education study, seeking to understand the motives behind student cheating, finds that cheating is often rational in nature.
That is, students at least believe that they are cheating out of ease, normalcy, or necessity. The study finds that the onus falls on instructors to live up to certain student expectations regarding clarity and engagement of course content.
The study identifies this as the best route to deterring the rationalized impulse to use a ghostwriting service. In other words, deterrence should revolve around strategies that make cheating seem less rational. The NZQA suggests that one way to deter cheating is to be in a state of constant evidence-gathering. The NZQA notes that such evidence can extend from written work to a mix of formative and summative assessments as well as informal ongoing observations.
The article points out that this would serve as a beneficial way to help TAs or graders identify writing inconsistencies even without their having the opportunity to know the students personally. The NZQA points out that while strategies such as one-on-one conferencing may seem time-consuming, this approach could actually occupy less time than setting, proctoring, and grading exams.
This research is compatible with my experience to some extent. Students know when a professor is disengaged from the subject, the class, or the general profession of educating our youth.
The Honor System is a useful way to ensure that students understand what is expected of their work in terms of originality. But it makes for a poor deterrent on its own. The customers who contact ghostwriting services out of laziness or a feeling of being overburdened by their various personal and academic responsibilities are generally not moved by the ethical quandary of cheating. When they express concern to the ghostwriter about the process of purchasing and receiving a ghostwritten paper, all of this concern focuses on the fear of being caught.
While many of the suggestions below revolve around student engagement as a way of deterring cheating, they work best when backed by sound detection strategies such as those outlined in the subsequent section. Individualization of the educational experience can instill in the student a greater sense of commitment to course materials and to the knowledge and career opportunities thereby implied.
Large lecture halls and online courses can create a sense of anonymity for the would-be cheater. Instructors can remove this sense of anonymity by creating opportunities where students can advance along individual research paths while sharing the same larger educational experience. Strategies include greater research subject flexibility, more opportunities for independent study and the chance to complete work directly relevant to a chosen career path.
Students will be less inclined to employ the services of a ghostwriter if they believe that what they are researching will actually lead to pertinent knowledge and skills with value beyond university halls. One thing that large universities and online courses have in common is that, if one desires, one can go an entire semester without ever once personally meeting a professor. There is comfort in this anonymity.
Removing this comfort creates a deterrent that does not otherwise exist. With respect to online courses, videoconferencing applications are now readily available and standard for laptops, home computers, and smartphones.
By building conferencing or videoconferencing into the semester, the instructor fosters a relationship with his or her students that will function as its own deterrent. Mandatory class participation heightens the imperative for students to become familiar with course content.
Mandating contributions to class discussions gives students a strong incentive to establish a consistent voice and perspective on course subjects. Class discussion helps to create a connection between the student and certain ideas, perspectives, and ways of expressing oneself on a given subject.
The more intensive and exciting the in-class discussion, the harder it will be for students to divorce themselves from the ideas stated in class. As a ghostwriter, I have completed countless assignments on controversial social issues like gun control, abortion, affirmative action, and the War on Terror.
In every case, the student is likely to have a well-defined position and some fairly personal reasons for that position. By creating a safe educational context in which these positions can be shared, explored, defended, and held in civil contrast with one another, the instructor can deter the student from outsourcing the expression of these positions when it comes time to write.
This approach forces students to own the opinions and ideas that will ultimately form their written work. As a bonus, this approach is also more than likely helping students to refine their ideas in ways that make them better prepared to handle their written assignments.
This one is really and truly up to each individual educator. In reality, this relationship weighs heavier on the conscience. Many students feel no remorse about cheating in a course from which there is a feeling of disengagement. Uninspired lectures, standard texts, and generic assignments serve as great ammunition for a student who wishes to rationalize his or her detachment. These conditions also help to reinforce the commonly held conception among students that education revolves around grading rather than learning.
Educators create a deterrent to this attitude by being their best selves in the classroom, during their office hours and beyond. In each instance, the student has added cause to be intimately familiar with his or her subject and is therefore deterred from handing the subject off to a ghostwriter.
Detection is both a manual process driven by professorial experience and a technology-driven process with continued room for growth and improvement. In a study regarding authorship identification of online messages, Zheng et al. These habits, such as paragraph length, use of indentation, and use of signature, can be strong authorial evidence of personal writing style. Though it is tempting to think of a future where this level of manual detection is no longer necessary, the reality is that no degree of automated detection will replace the need for professorial vigilance.
But faculty must review and interpret the report. Even with the best detection software, human analysis is required. Only the critical eye of the professor will be capable of determining if academic dishonesty has occurred. The goal is to find instructive and innovative ways of merging human analysis and technology-mediated assessment to detect ghostwriting. Researchers suggest that these tendencies toward dependency on certain verbiage and phraseology can serve as fairly reliable indicators of authorship.
Accordingly, the researchers suggest that the work of specific professional ghostwriters could itself be stamped with distinguishing features. The tool will be soon enlarged with ghostwriter detectors. We do hope that it will discover the cheat and reduce it to the level of previous years. The study acknowledges the challenge of applying this strategy to the decidedly more modest bodies of work created by individual students.
The goal of the study is to determine how to adapt these analyses to smaller writing sample sizes. It is hoped that even as a precursor to a full-scale study, this project will be able to suggest steps that maximize the reliability of ascription of ghostwritten works. What differentiates customers of ghostwriting services from other cheaters is that they are willing to go the extra mile to avoid detection. Turnitin and other plagiarism-detection services have all but eliminated the threats of copy-and-paste, duplication, and other modes of self-directed online cheating.
Of course, students attempt all of these methods anyway. But educators do have a resource at their disposal that absolutely works. Students who use ghostwriting services know this quite well. As I noted earlier, assignment instructions often include the specification that Turnitin will be used. The ghostwriter will compose an assignment with every intention of evading this security. But of course, the ghostwriter can only control what goes on outside of the classroom.
It therefore falls on the professor to use in-class time wisely. Standardizing one-on-one conferencing with each student following assignment-submission requires each student to defend his or her writing. This is an especially attractive approach because it need not revolve around the suspicion of cheating. This healthy exercise can simply serve as a way of helping the student to reflect on the content of an assignment and the process involved in its completion.
Inconsistencies between the ideas, voice and knowledge expressed in the written work and in the interview will serve as red flags and as a point of entry for a more prying investigation. Of the many strategies outlined in this account, this may well be the most readily adaptable to any context where writing forms a portion of the coursework.
Here, the orientation process for any writing-intensive course will begin with an in-class writing assignment. This sample will serve as a literary fingerprint for each student to be used for the purpose of matching against voice, diction, and other distinguishing features when evaluating future assignments for signs of ghostwriting.
In addition to being adaptable to any number of learning contexts, this is a strategy that could also produce meaningful evidence of cheating or, at the very least, shift the burden of proof to the student. Not to be overlooked is the opportunity that this strategy also offers to identify students who struggle with writing and to provide them with access to the support they need.
One way to improve the chances of detecting ghostwritten work is to simply be a savvier user of technology than the average cheating student.
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