A large portion of carbon emission is attributed to the burning of gasoline in internal-combustion engine of vehicles.
Vehicles with poor gas mileage contribute the most to global warming. Besides, the sulphur group gas is the most harmful for this. Its contribution is 30 per cent in global warming.
This gas is also emitted from the burning of fossil fuels. Increase in global temperatures will cause rise in sea level. It will lead to melting of glaciers, changes in rainfall patterns, increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather. As per the latest survey report the rate of melting of glaciers has seen sharp increase in recent times.
Even those glaciers are affected from global warming which have been considered permanent. The shrinking of glaciers is going to pose a major problem of drinking water. The sea levels as a result of melting of glaciers have risen from 0.
Scientists have warned in their reports that most of the glaciers will disappear within a period of 15 to 25 years. It will create problems of drinking water and food grains in most of the North American countries. India is not unaffected from it. The Himalayan glaciers have shrunk about 30 per cent after The rise in sea levels is a major cause of concern.
A large number of cities located in coastal areas will submerge in the sea. The damage of rising sea levels is diverse. Buildings and roads close to the water could be flooded and they could suffer damage from hurricanes and tropical storms.
Experts believe that global warming could increase the intensity of hurricanes by over 50 per cent. In addition, as the sea rises, beach erosion takes place, particularly on steep banks. Wetlands are lost as the level rises.
It would also contribute to the rise in death caused by heat. The problem of drought would be frequent. Consequently, malnutrition and starvation will pose serious challenge before humanity. Global warming is a great threat to the flora and fauna of the earth. A large number of species of them may become extinct. The expanse of desert would increase. Low rainfall and rising temperature could add to the intensity and frequency of dusty storm. This in turn will immensely affect the quality of agricultural land, ultimately causing adverse effect on agricultural produce.
It would have far-reaching socio-economic impact. In Indian context, the impact of global warming is a matter of grave concern. As is well known, India is mainly an agricultural country and agriculture here is gamble of the monsoon, e.
Though it is to affect the whole country, the worst likely impact would be on central and northern India which is high-yielding parts of the country. These are the regions which produce the largest agricultural yield.
The rise in atmospheric temperature and fall in rain would naturally result in decline in crop production. Moreover, it would have great effect on biodiversity as well. The growing concerns over global temperatures have led to the nations, states, corporations and individuals to draw out a plan of action to avert the situation.
In recent years, particularly as a result of risk theory, fear has become objectified. Alan Hunt has noted that risk discourse transposes anxieties into an objectivist problematic As a result, fear is increasingly perceived as an autonomous problem. The privatisation of fear encourages an inward orientation towards the self. According to one interesting study, when members of the public are interviewed about the personal risks they face they tend to represent crisis, fears and anxieties as self-produced and individual problems, the products of personal biography Fear as a problem in its own right.
A recurring question in public debates on contemporary risk consciousness is whether society is more fearful today than it was in the past.
Some believe that todays magnitude and nature of fear is different to the past, since it seems that fear is everywhere Studies on the fear of crime argue that there has been a growth revelation of fear in everyday life.
The fear factor has certainly grown, as indicated by the growth in locked car and house doors and security systems, the popularity of gated or secure communities for all age and income groups, and the increasing surveillance of public spacenot to mention the. However, an increase in the quantity of fear is difficult to measure, since the very meaning of fear is itself continually changing. That is why, as Andrew Tudor argues, simply to document the considerable range of fears given currency in our cultures is not enough Postmodern Urbanism that the fear we sense today is no longer the fear of dangerous classes; rather, fear has come home and become privatised The sensibility of fear is internalised in an isolated fashion, for example as a fear of crime or as a rather banal ambient fear as Hubbard describes it towards life in general.
Hubbard notes that this is a kind of fear that requires us to vigilantly monitor every banal minutia of our lives, since even mundane acts are now viewed as inherently risky and dangerous Low-grade fears and risks seem to be flourishing and capturing peoples imaginations. The real significance of this development, however, of this move towards a more individuated writings form of fear, is the highly personalised, even customised way in which fear is experienced now.
As Zygmunt bauman argues, postmodernity has privatised the fears of modernity. With fears privatizedthere is no hope left that human reason, and its earthly agents, will make the race a guided tour, certain to end up in a secure and agreeable shelter, bauman writes John keane has drawn attention to another aspect of the privatisation of fear namely, todays growing tendency to transform private fears into public ones.
The legal theorist Christopher guzelian argues that this indirect aspect of fear is the most distinctive feature of contemporary fear culture. He believes that most fears in Americas electronic age are the results of risk information whether correct or false that is communicated to society. He concludes that it is risk communication, not personal experience, that causes most fear these days However, the influence of fear today cannot be explained as a direct outcome of the power of the media.
The very real dynamic of individuation means that fear is experienced in a fragmented and atomised form. That is why fear is rarely experienced as a form of collective insecurity, as it often was in earlier times. This shift from collective fears to individuated fear is captured well by nan Elin, who argued in the book. Swidler argues that this self-forming continually calls upon the symbolic resources of the wider culture.
Through experience with symbols, people learn desires, moods, habits of thought and feeling that no one could invent on her own, she observes. And these habits of thought and feeling influence the way that individuals make sense of their experiences, and also how they perceive of threats and how they respond to threats.
As Norbert Elias stated, the strength and form of shame, fear of war and fear of God, guilt, fear of punishment or of loss of social prestige, mans fear of himself, of being overcome by his own affective impulses depend upon the structure of his. Threats are mediated through the cultural outlook. And today, the role of culture is arguably more significant than it was in previous times.
According to Stefanie grupp, in her paper on the political implications of a discourse of fear, individual fears kindle are cultivated through the media and are less and less the outcome of direct experience. Fear is decreasingly experienced first-hand and increasingly experienced on a discursive and abstract level, concludes Grupp. She also suggestively notes that there has been a general shift from a fearsome life towards a life with fearsome media This point diploma is echoed by Altheide, who claims that popular culture has been the key element in promoting the discourse of fear Even Osama bin Laden seems to have grasped this trend.
In an interview in October , when asked why is the western media establishment so anti-humane, bin Laden replied: Because it implants fear and helplessness in the psyche of the people of Europe and the United States. The sixteenth-century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes regarded fear as being essential for the realisation of the individual and of a civilised society For Hobbes, and others, fear could be seen as a fairly reasonable response to new events and big changes. In the individual, too, fear has not always been viewed as a negative emotion.
As david Parkin argued in his essay toward an apprehension of fear, as late as the nineteenth century the sentiment of fear was linked to respect, reverence, veneration. Fearing the lord, for example, was culturally celebrated and valued. In contrast, the act of fearing God today sits far more uneasily with the prevailing cultural outlook.
Matters are complicated further by the fact that the words and phrases used to describe fear are culturally and historically specific.
Today, we talk about fear as something unspecific, diffuse, and intimately tied to the therapeutic view of the individual. In her important study of the cultural history of fear, published in , joanna bourke points to the importance of the recent conversion of fear into anxiety through the therapeutic revolution Anxieties about being at risk or feeling stressed or traumatised or vulnerable show very clearly that todays individualised therapeutic vocabulary influences our sensibility of fear.
Contemporary fear culture, in an important contribution to the debate about how culture impacts on the population, Ann Swidler argued that people vary greatly in how much culture they apply to their lives But in the very act of using culture, people learn how to be, or become, particular kinds of persons. These feeling rules influence behaviour; they instruct us on what we ought to fear, and how we ought to fear. According to Anthony giddens, people handle dangers and the fears associated with them in terms of with emotional and behavioural formulae which have come to be part of their everyday behaviour and thought But the transformation of anxious responses into fear also requires the intervention of social forces, of what I have labelled fear entrepreneurs As the sociologist david Altheide has argued, fear does not just happen; it is socially constructed and then manipulated by those who seek to benefit While this description of socially constructed fear tends to inflate the role of self-interest the extent to which fear entrepreneurs exploit fear in order to gain some direct benefit its emphasis on the role of human agency in the making of fear is nonetheless.
So, the meaning and experience of fear are continually shaped by cultural and historical factors. The historical fear of famine is very different, for example, to todays powerful fear of being fat The meaning that societies once attached to fear of God or the fear of Hell is not quite the same as todays fear of pollution or of cancer. And fear does not always have negative qualities.
One of the most perceptive your studies of the history of emotions says we must distinguish between the collective emotional standards of a society and the subjective feelings of the individual While the emotional experience of the individual is, of course, an important aspect of the problem of fear, we must also try to conceptualise fear as a social phenomenon.
Cultural norms that shape the way in which we manage and display our emotions also influence the way that fear is experienced.
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