She also states that internalized power structures within the workplace kept anyone from discussing sexual harassment, making it "inaudible" p.
In her words, the abuse was both acceptable for men to perpetuate and a taboo that women could not confront either publicly or privately. MacKinnon states that the "social failure" to address these pervasive intimate violations hurt women in terms of the economic status, opportunity, mental health, and self-esteem p. Many believe that sexual harassment is about the abuse of power, others believe it is about access to sexual favors, and still others believe that sexual harassment is about access to power and sex.
In legal terms, sexual harassment is divided into two main categories. Quid pro quo harassment occurs when an employee is made to submit to some form of sexual advance in order to obtain a benefit e. In such cases, sexual harassment is considered sex discrimination because presumably the demand would not have been made if the employee were of the opposite sex Browne, Initially, researchers and courts believed that this type of harassment was motivated by sexual desire, but research has subsequently suggested that it is instead meant to assert dominance over or derogate the target Berdahl, Within this type of harassment, the victim does not claim specific harassment, but rather that the general work environment is discriminatory.
Generally, it is believed that this type of harassment seeks to undermine and humiliate its target and is likely to be motivated by sexual hostility rather than sexual desire Berdahl, As women gain greater equity in the workplace, it might be assumed that the instances of sexual harassment in the workplace would diminish. However, the causes of sexual harassment are complex and hard to identify, and sexual harassment remains prevalent in modern society.
Women's increasing presence in the workforce has meant that men and women work together more closely in the twenty-first century than at any other time in history. In fact, there are fewer and fewer "male only" professions as women become much more fully integrated into all corners of the workforce.
According to one researcher, "one effect of the breakdown of the sexual division of labor is the expansion of opportunities for sexual conflict in the workplace" Browne, , p. One outgrowth of this conflict may be sexual harassment. Wayne State University law professor Kingsley Brown analyzed data from numerous studies to argue that sexual harassment is rooted in sociocultural causes, as well as biological and psychological causes.
Sociocultural theories of sexual harassment, he says, hold that harassment is a means for the harasser to gain power over his target. Biological and psychological theories, on the other hand, hold that men are biologically and psychologically predisposed to be sexually aggressive and that sexual harassment is an outgrowth of these predispositions Browne, Further, Browne argues that men tend to interpret female interest as sexual, while women are more likely to interpret male attention as mere friendliness.
According to Browne, these differing perspectives may oftentimes lead to miscommunication and unintentional harassment. In other words a man, perceiving a woman's friendliness to indicate sexual interest, may escalate his attention to a level that the woman sees as threatening Browne, The term sexual harassment was actually coined in the 70's when women entered the workforce in record numbers. In a edition of CQ Researcher, Charles Clark wrote "The s ushered in an era of dramatic efforts to curb workplace discrimination of all forms.
The classic scenario of bosses blackmailing subordinates for sex has steadily broadened. Legally defined sexual harassment now includes lascivious comments, off-color jokes and 'leering,' murky areas that raise debates over freedom of speech.
Still, courts are crowded with sexual harassment cases. Bank of America, Corne v. Train, failed miserably when the courts interpreted "sexual harassment based on sex as a 'personal matter' between two individuals, and not as action directed at or affecting groups of people. The first successful case alleging sexual harassment occurred in , in William v. Saxbe, a woman sued her employer alleging that her supervisor fired her when she refused to have sex with him.
This case proved to be a landmark decision that paved the way for future court rulings Crouch Harassment on the basis of sex is a violation of the law. Unwelcome sexual advances, request for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when:.
Quid pro quo sexual harassment occurs when your employer or someone in the superior chain of command makes a job or a job benefit e. In cases of a hostile work environment, there doesn't need to be an exchange of sexual favor or any change in work related benefits. Instead, "the workplace is permeated with discriminatory intimidating, ridicule and insult that is sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter the conditions of the victim's employment and create an abusive working environment" qtd in Paniccia The first case using the hostile work environment argument was successfully tried in the early s in Brown v.
In this instance, the employee was able to show that her work environment was hostile, offensive, and unbearable LeMoncheck and Sterba, The definition of sexual harassment has been extended twice since these initial rulings.
In , an appellate court in Florida, found that nude pinups in the workplace constituted a hostile work environment.
Noted legal scholar and feminist Catherine MacKinnon defined sexual harassment as "the unwanted imposition of sexual requirement in the context of a relationship of unequal power" (MacKinnon,
Sexual Harassment 1 Sexual Harassment is defined according to Wikipedia (), as an intimidation, bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. In some situations, sexual harassment is known to be illegal may be 5/5(5).
Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment The gendered nature of sexual violence is well documented in academic research, organizational and policy studies, and government documents. Viewpoints on why men are responsible for the vast majority of rapes and cases of sexual harassment, with the victims being largely women and girls, often clash in the. Research Paper on Sexual Harassment in Workplace. Research Paper on Sexual Harassment in Workplace This assignment help paper considers a detail study of the management. For this, the topic “sexual harassment in the workplace” is selected to determine several theories and approaches related to it. Sexual harassment is an intimidation in which anyone forces the weaker person to act something.5/5(K).
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