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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TOBACCO-RELATED DISEASE
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Tobacco Research Paper

Babe Ruth had an oropharyngeal tumor, which is a cancerous tumor located in the back of the throat. Works Cited Bellenir, Karen, ed. Tobacco Information for Teens. Regents of the University of Minnesota, The Bacchus Network, Feb. Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Board certified in pediatrics, and a father of two. Mehrotra believes that there is nothing more important than the health of children as the health of the child is the center of family dynamics.

Our practice philosophy revolves around an integrative approach to child health. To expand this effort Dr. Naveen Mehrotra also mentors My Whole Child an online effort to bring all child related health information under one holistic umbrella.

We can attend to your newborns, at St. You will need to specify Dr. If you have recently moved into the area or are looking for a new pediatrician, you may call the office and schedule an appointment for a visit. ETS is now regarded as a risk factor for development of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease and altered lung functions in passive smokers In general, children exposed to ETS show deterioration of lung function, more days of restricted activity, more pulmonary infections, more days in bed, more absences from school and more hospitalization than children living in nonsmoking homes Passive smoking is also implicated in increasing atherosclerosis in individuals 15 to 65 years of age.

Children exposed to ETS are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Quantitative risk estimates were obtained by measuring the intimal-medial thickness of the carotid artery in a large longitudinal atherosclerosis risk study of 10, individuals.

A recent meta-analysis 67 of 18 epidemiological studies 10 cohort and eight case-control further showed an increased RR of CAD in ETS-exposed individuals. These investigators also identified a significant dose-response relationship between the intensity of smoke exposure and risk of CAD in passive smokers.

Cardiovascular health risks of smoke-exposed women are of particular concern. Although the exposure to ETS is a current topic of debate in tobacco-related cancers and other lung diseases, the limited research at the basic experimental level provides a strong argument for launching experimental studies to support human data and explore disease mechanisms.

Follow-up of news stories, and local and state ordinances, leads to the conclusion that more communities and states are restricting exposure to secondhand smoke. The results are summarized below.

A total of hits were obtained and a careful review of the abstracts provided the following distribution:. A similar search of the NIH database from to revealed grants in all award categories. The grant distribution by category was as follows:. All the remaining grants generally supported behavioural and epidemiological studies in humans or other systems. Thus, it is clear that the need for basic experimental research in the field of smoking-associated diseases and the mechanisms through which tobacco smoke causes various diseases remain as important as they ever were.

The escalation of health care costs makes it even more necessary to find ways to protect the health of smokers and smoke-exposed individuals with any dietary or therapeutic interventions that hold promise.

The most benefit is likely to result from detailed epidemiological studies complemented by specific molecular genotyping of various populations.

Ideally, studies of this type will re-evaluate the prevalence of smoking and tobacco use and determine the exact nature of tobacco-related disease incidence, the role of contributory factors such as dietary habits, exposure to other substances and the genetic composition of subpopulations most at risk. Various biochemical and molecular assays will need to be applied to screen nonsmoker and smoker populations for a variety of health risks.

Analysis of the results from such studies will help identify the main interacting factors for various health risks and define relationships among various epidemiological parameters.

It would appear necessary to assemble teams of multidisciplinary investigators to perform these coordinated human studies in the field and in the laboratory. By nature, such studies are expensive and will involve commitment of resources, time and substantial amounts of funds to obtain meaningful results.

Given the limited resources and competing priorities for research funding, it is not easy to undertake such human studies. Hence, the experimental studies in animal models using inhalation exposure to whole smoke, and not individual constituents of smoke, is probably the next best approach for smoking and health programs. The human epidemiological studies described in the present review have identified a number of genes that appear to have a distinct role in various tobacco-related diseases, and cancers in particular.

Inability to control all the different variables in human studies has made it difficult to clearly define the contribution of various suspect genes in tobacco carcinogenesis.

With the recent commercial availability of a variety of transgenic and knock-out animals for research, it would be most desirable, as a first step, to use these animals to establish experimental models of various tobacco-related diseases which can then be used for determining the contribution of different genes to disease processes and for elucidation of the mechanism s of disease development.

Furthermore, these animal models can be used to identify various agents possessing protective and therapeutic potential. Research efforts in the area of smoking and health would benefit by focusing on studies of the in vivo effects of inhaled whole cigarette smoke in animal models of known specific genetic composition. Selection of the genetic composition would also require a thorough consideration of the information available from human molecular epidemiological studies. As indicated earlier, there are a number of genes that clearly influence the development of smoke-related diseases.

In this context, many relevant transgenic and knock-out animals that can be effectively used for the study of tobacco-related diseases are now becoming available.

Tobacco abuse is a major public health problem and includes secondhand smoke exposure. Continued efforts to control and eliminate this abuse are a medical necessity. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Int J Angiol v. Telephone , fax , e-mail ude. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract A large volume of data has accumulated on the issues of tobacco and health worldwide.

Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Smoking, Tobacco. TOBACCO-RELATED CANCERS Tobacco carcinogenesis has remained a focus of research during the past 10 years, and various epidemiological and experimental studies have not only confirmed the major role of tobacco smoke exposure in lung and bladder cancers, but have also reported on its association with cancers of various other sites, such as the oral cavity, esophagus, colon, pancreas, breast, larynx and kidney.

A total of hits were obtained and a careful review of the abstracts provided the following distribution: A Global Status Report. World Health Organization; The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Centers for Disease Control. Murray J, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause — Global burden of disease study.

Cancers weakly related to smoking. Risk from tobacco and potentials for health gain. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Cancer, cigarette smoking and premature death in Europe: Hoffman D, Hoffman I. J Toxicol Environ Health. Cigarette smoke radicals and the role of free radicals in chemical carcinogenicity.

Vascular damage from smoking: Disease mechanisms at the arterial wall. Smoking as a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction. Acetylcholine-induced coronary vasoconstriction in young, heavy smokers with normal coronary arteriographic findings. Passive smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent arterial dilatation in healthy young adults. N Engl J Med. Smoking is associated with dose-related increase of intima-media thickness and endothelial dysfunction. Arterial endothelial dysfunction related to passive smoking is potentially reversible in healthy young adults.

Smoking impairs the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in saphenous vein. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Diminished vascular response to inhibition of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and enhanced vasoconstriction to exogenously administered endothelin-1 in clinically healthy smokers. A smoking-dependent risk of coronary artery disease associated with a polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene.

Smoking-dependent and haplotype-specific effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms on angiographically assessed coronary artery disease in Caucasian- and African-Brazilians. Adverse effects of cigarette smoke on NO bioavailability: Role of arginine metabolism and oxidative stress.

Adhesion-promoting effects of cigarette smoke on leukocytes and endothelial cells. Ann NY Acad Sci. Cigarette smoke condensate-induced adhesion molecule expression and transendothelial migration of monocytes. Increased adhesiveness of isolated monocytes to endothelium is prevented by vitamin C intake in smokers. Cigarette smoking is associated with increased human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells: Reversibility with oral L-arginine but not vitamin C.

J Am Coll Cardiol. Oxidative stress induced by environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace is mitigated by antioxidant supplementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation F2-isoprostanes in smokers.

N Eng J Med. Effect of vitamin E on endothelial vasodilator function in patients with hypercholesterolemia, chronic smoking or both. Steinberg F, Chait A. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation and lipid peroxidation in smokers.

Am J Clin Nutr. A report of the surgeon general. Lung cancer in women. Lash T, Aschengrau A.

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Tobacco Usage - Research Paper Sample. Tobacco has remained to be the most widely used drug all over the world despite its negative effects to human health. It is used by both male and females.

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Indeed, many scientific research papers devoted to the connections between smoking and various ailments that have been commissioned or funded by the tobacco industry are notorious for their failure to keep up with decent scientific standards and rigor.

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This paper will discuss the history of the tobacco industry, its corporate stakeholders and response to their issues, the role of the industry in its social, economic, and political setting, domestic and international ethics, ecological and natural resources, and social issues. Free Tobacco papers, essays, and research papers. Tobacco: The Original Addictive Substance - The tobacco of the south has shaped the United States in history and today.

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A perfect research paper on tobacco use should be informative and convincing. There should be detailed descriptions of the effect of tobacco use on the human body, as well as analysis of the cause of smoking and its popularity among people. Students who are required to prepare a research paper are expected to read a lot about tobacco and its use, its effect on the human body and the world economics. Tobacco Research Paper This sample Tobacco Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper.