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Deduction & Induction

What Are Independent Groups in Psychology?

❶Inductive research is a flexible approach because there is no requirement of pre-determined theory to collect data and information.

What Is the Difference Between Inductive and Deductive Logic?

What Is Systematic Observation in Psychology?
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What is Inductive Research?

Grounded theory by Glaser and Strauss can be considered as a fine example of the inductive approach in research. This is mainly because, in Grounded theory, the focus is on creating new knowledge through a cyclic process. A researcher who steps into the field has an open mind, unbiased, and without preconceived ideas.

He derives the research problem mostly from the setting itself, and the data guides him towards the creation of a new theory. Inductive research question example: What causes air pollution the most? Deductive research is quite different from inductive research as it uses a top-down approach in opposition to the inductive research. Deductive research can be understood as a research category that includes a process of testing hypothesis in order to verify a theory.

Unlike inductive research that generates new knowledge through the creation of theories, the deductive research aims at testing a theory. It does not attempt to find patterns in data but uses observation with the intention of validating the pattern. This is used by researchers mainly to falsify theories. Deductive approach mostly comes in quantitative research where the researcher attempts to bring out causality and present a statistical analysis.

This highlights that inductive and deductive research are vastly different and can be used depending on the objectives of the researcher. Deductive research question example: Factories cause the most air pollution. Coming from Engineering cum Human Resource Development background, has over 10 years experience in content developmet and management. Deductive reasoning uses a top-down approach. It typically begins with selecting a pre-existing theory about a certain topic of interest.

The theory is then narrowed down into more specific hypotheses that can be tested. Next, observations are collected to address the hypotheses. This ultimately leads to the ability to test the hypotheses with specific data and confirm or deny the original theory. Inductive reasoning works in the other direction, and it relies heavily on a bottom-up approach. Inductive reasoning begins by detecting patterns and regularities within specific observations and measures.

From these patterns, a tentative hypothesis is formulated that can be explored. Finally, some general conclusions or theories are developed from the results found when testing the hypothesis. Inductive reasoning is more open-ended and exploratory, especially at the beginning.

What Is the Difference Between Inductive Vs. Deductive Reasoning?

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The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data.

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Inductive approach, also known in inductive reasoning, starts with the observations and theories are proposed towards the end of the research .

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Deductive research aims to test an existing theory while inductive research aims to generate new theories from observed data. Deductive research works from the more general to the more specific, and inductive research works from more specific observations to more general theories. Inductive research mainly focuses on building new theories, whereas deductive research focuses on verifying theories. This is the main difference between the two types of research. Through this article let us examine the differences between the two types of research, inductive and deductive research.

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Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses. Even though a particular study may look like it's purely deductive (e.g., an experiment designed to test the hypothesized effects of some treatment on some outcome), most social research involves both inductive and deductive reasoning . An inductive research approach is one that begins with the final stages of scientific research, typically observation, and works backward to form a hypothesis. It is the opposite of deductive research. Inductive reasoning is common among the social sciences whereas deductive research is more common.