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❶The process of close reading should produce questions.

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Some basic guidelines

Modern technology has made life better with many conveniences. Not only has technology improved our lives through convenience, it has improved our lives through efficiency. The time saved by machines doing most of the work leaves more time for people to develop their personal goals or to just relax.

The opposing view might argue that people misuse their increased free time sitting around and watching television. While some people have health problems as a result of technology, by far, lives are improved. Nowadays, people have more time and energy than ever to simply enjoy their lives and pursue their goals thanks to the efficiency of modern technology.

Accessibility to a wide range of options has been expanded through modern technology. Never before could people cross a continent or an ocean in an afternoon. Travel is not the only way technology has created accessibility. Software which types from voice commands has made using computers more accessible for school or work.

People with special needs have many new options thanks to modern technology such as special chairs or text readers. Actually, those people who need hearing aids as a result of normal aging have access to continued communication and enjoyment of entertainment they did not previously have. There are many ways technology has improved lives through increased accessibility. Notice how these proof paragraphs stick to one proof point introduced in the topic sentences in red.

These three paragraphs, not only support the original thesis, but go on to give details and explanations which explain the proof point in the topic sentence. In that case, the rebuttal should go before the conclusion. Some instructors want only a summary of the proof and a restatement of the thesis. Some instructors ask for a general prediction or implication of the information presented without a restatement of thesis. Still others may want to include a restatement along with a general prediction or implication of the information presents.

Be sure to review assignment instructions or check with instructor. The efficiency provided by technology gives people more time to enjoy life and pursue personal development, and the accessibility has broadened options for travel, school, and work.

Modern technology has improved our lives through convenience, efficiency, and accessibility. See how the thesis statement was restated in red. The two major arguments about the possible locations proven to be incorrect were also included to remind the reader of the major proof points made in the paper. Without it, everyday life would be filled with burdensome tasks and be limited to our neighborhood and our physical capacity. Rhetoric is the art of persuasion.

Rhetorical modes are ways of using language with a specific focus. Narration, for example, tells a story or a sequence of events. A narrative essay tells a story. Other rhetorical modes focus on describing, defining, using examples exemplification , or classifying as the primary purpose. Comparing and contrasting simply compares one thing to another showing the differences as well as the similarities.

Sometimes, instructors assign essays requiring a specific mode such as defining something or discussing the causes of a problem. These are considered useful ways to develop the particular skill such as looking closely at something to describe it or finding ways to define an object or situation. For example, a paper arguing that pesticides are harmful might include information defining and describing various pesticides.

It could include classifying them by potential harm and use examples of the types of pesticides. It could have information on the effects of particular pesticides. Most writing blend the uses of rhetorical styles. Like all effective writing, essays must have unity.

They must clearly stay focused on one purpose: All the sentences in each paragraph and each paragraph must work together to achieve that purpose. It is critical for each sentence in each paragraph to start with a topic sentence that states a reason why the thesis is right and that the rest of the sentences in the paragraph support that topic sentence.

Essays must have coherence. Each sentence must flow smoothly and logically into the next. Each paragraph must flow smoothly and logically into the next. Words and word groups called transitions must be used to link one sentence to the next and one paragraph to the next. See Unity and Coherence in Essays for more information. Generally speaking, use of Standard English vocabulary and grammar is expected.

These types of papers should not sound as though you were talking casually to a friend. Also, while we use second person you, your in informal speech, formal academic writing should not use second person since the reference is not specific. You should know where your children are. Parents of young children should know where their children are.

Instructors will vary about accepting the use of first person I, me, my, we, us, our in essay writing. Be aware of requirements for any particular assignment. Formal academic essays should not include sentences that refer to yourself or the paper. For more information on language use, see Word Use Appropriate Language. The purpose of a literary analysis essay is to carefully examine and sometimes evaluate a work of literature or an aspect of a work of literature.

For example, a short story analysis might include identifying a particular theme and then showing how the writer suggests that theme through the point of view of the story. It is important to remember that literary analysis does not merely demonstrate a particularly literary element. The focus is explaining how that element is meaningful or significant to the work as a whole.

See Essay Organization and Elements of Fiction for more information. Close reading is deep analysis of how a literary text function; it is both a reading process and something you include in a literary analysis paper. When you read a text paying specific attention to certain literary elements, looking for particular patters, or following the development of a particular character, you are practicing close reading.

Likewise, when you watch a film with particular emphasis on a certain element, you are doing a close reading. Of course, when one writes an essay that teases out a certain element, this is the beginning of a close reading. Like literary analysis more generally, close reading is not a means in and of itself. Close reading helps inform the larger meaning or import of a work. Literary analysis involves examining the components of a literary text, which allows us to focus on small parts of the text, clues to help us understand the work as a whole.

The process of close reading should produce questions. When you begin to answer these questions, you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class discussion or write a literary analysis paper. Close reading is a process of finding as much information as you can in order form to as many questions as you can.

An outline includes the thesis and proof points. It is the skeleton of an academic essay. Starting with an outline can be extremely helpful in writing an essay. Once an outline is completed, it is a matter of developing the proof points body paragraphs ,adding a background before the thesis for an introduction paragraph, and adding a concluding paragraph. See Outlining for more information. The important thing in essay writing is to have a point, thereby knowing what you are trying to prove, and stick to that point.

Keep it simple and focused. This format is the basis for writing a research paper as well. If you can get the idea in a simple essay, writing research papers will be much easier. For information on writing a research paper, see How to Write a Research Paper.

Sample Essay — Modern Technology. Essay-Organization-Overview-tutorial Introduction Paragraph tutorial Thesis Statement tutorial Body Paragraphs tutorial Concluding Paragraph tutorial Essay Organization — Overview There are various types of writings assignments an instructor may give such as journals, reaction papers, questions to be answered, paragraphs on topics or questions, essays, and research papers.

An essay is a collection of paragraphs that fit around one idea or position on an issue. Most university essays are argumentative, and there is no set pattern for the shape of an argumentative essay. The simple three-point essay taught in high school is far too restrictive for the complexities of most university assignments. You must be ready to come up with whatever essay structure helps you to convince your reader of the validity of your position. In other words, you must be flexible, and you must rely on your wits.

Each essay presents a fresh problem. Though there are no easy formulas for generating an outline, you can avoid one of the most common pitfalls in student papers by remembering this simple principle: For example, an essay on an historical period should not necessarily follow the chronology of events from that period. Similarly, a well-constructed essay about a literary work does not usually progress in parallel with the plot.

Your obligation is to advance your argument, not to reproduce the plot. If your essay is not well structured, then its overall weaknesses will show through in the individual paragraphs. Detecting something stirring, Hamlet draws his sword and kills Polonius, thinking he has killed Claudius.

Now Hamlet has blood on his hands, and the blood of the wrong person. He often accuses them of sins they could not have committed. It is doubtful that Gertrude even knows Claudius killed her previous husband. Hamlet goes on to ask Gertrude to compare the image of the two kings, old Hamlet and Claudius. In Act 3, Scene 1, he denies to Ophelia ever having expressed his love for her, using his feigned madness as cover for his cruelty.

Though his rantings may be an act, they cannot hide his obsessive anger at one particular woman: The logic is plain: By condemning women for actions they did not commit, Hamlet is doing just what he accuses Guildenstern of doing to him: The second of these two paragraphs is much stronger, largely because it is not plot-driven.

Notice that the paragraph jumps from one scene to another as is necessary, but the logic of the argument moves along a steady path. At any given point in your essays, you will want to leave yourself free to go wherever you need to in your source material. Your only obligation is to further your argument.

Paragraph a sticks closely to the narrative thread of Act 3, Scene 4, and as a result the paragraph makes several different points with no clear focus. Most essay outlines will never be handed in. They are meant to serve you and no one else. Occasionally, your professor will ask you to hand in an outline weeks prior to handing in your paper. Usually, the point is to ensure that you are on the right track. Nevertheless, when you produce your outline, you should follow certain basic principles.

This is an example of a sentence outline. Another kind of outline is the topic outline. It consists of fragments rather than full sentences. Topic outlines are more open-ended than sentence outlines: The earlier you begin planning, the better. It is usually a mistake to do all of your research and note-taking before beginning to draw up an outline. Of course, you will have to do some reading and weighing of evidence before you start to plan.

But as a potential argument begins to take shape in your mind, you may start to formalize your thoughts in the form of a tentative plan. You will be much more efficient in your reading and your research if you have some idea of where your argument is headed. You can then search for evidence for the points in your tentative plan while you are reading and researching. As you gather evidence, those points that still lack evidence should guide you in your research.

Remember, though, that your plan may need to be modified as you critically evaluate your evidence. Though convenient, the common method of jotting down your notes consecutively on paper is far from ideal. The problem is that your points remain fixed on paper.

Here are three alternatives that provide greater flexibility:. When you are researching, write down every idea, fact, quotation, or paraphrase on a separate index card. A useful alternative involves using both white and coloured cards. When you come up with a point that you think may be one of the main points in your outline, write it at the top of a coloured card.

Put each supporting note on a separate white card, using as much of the card as necessary. When you feel ready, arrange the coloured cards into a workable plan. Some of the points may not fit in.

Avoiding a common pitfall

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The Organization of an Essay The following explains the traditional way to organize an expository essay that is trying to make a point about some topic and to provide supporting material for that point.

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Underlying organizational patterns seem particularly clear in comparison & contrast [you can look at the online discussion of comparison and contrast to see its basic organizational patterns]; in process [do this, then do this, then do this; or this happens, then this happens, then this happens]; and in cause & effect [this happens, then (as a result) this happens].

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To improve your ability to understand a difficult book or passage, you might start by finding the organization pattern. This may sound more difficult than it really is. There are a few ways that writers can choose to organize their work, and the organization depends very much on the topic. If you. Essay Organization – Overview. There are various types of writings assignments an instructor may give such as journals, reaction papers, questions to be answered, paragraphs on topics or questions, essays, and research papers. An essay is a writing on a specific question or topic.

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- Organizational Trends Organizational Trends According to Organizational Behavior (OB, ), decision making is defined as the process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a . Organization Essays If you have received a new assignment to prepare organization essays, you need to think about the beginning because it should hook the reader’s attention. It is challenging because you need to pay attention to the interests of your target audience.