A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.
Berndt, ; Harlow, Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names. If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.
Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.
When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style. Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.
Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n.
When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite. According to Smith , Mind over Matter section, para.
Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination.
In the text, place a superscript numeral immediately after the text about which you would like to include more information, e. Scientists examined the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak. At the end of the paper, create a separate page labeled Notes with the title centered at the top of the page.
Below are examples of two kinds of notes. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper.
Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page References with no quotation marks, underlining, etc.
It should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay. The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work book, article, electronic resource, etc. Last name first, followed by author initials.
Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 , List by their last names and initials. Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 , If there are more than six authors, list the first six as above and then "et al.
Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film and Writing, 44 3 , Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary 10th ed. When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name.
Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the two sources above would appear as follows: Merriam-Webster's , and "New Drug," Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year earliest comes first. When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first. Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34 , Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school.
Child Development, 66 , Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24 , If you are using more than one reference by the same author or the same group of authors listed in the same order published in the same year, organise them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter.
Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e. Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17 , Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52 , APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period.
The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalised. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized or underlined. Title of Periodical, volume number issue number , pages. Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc. Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles.
Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55 , Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined. The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 30 , Making the grade in today's schools.
Time, , Unlike other periodicals, p. Single pages take p. B2; multiple pages take pp. B2, B4 or pp. Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today , pp. Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 2 , Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control ]. Contemporary Psychology, 38 , Capital letter also for subtitle. For "Location," you should always list the city, but you should also include the state if the city is unfamiliar or if the city could be confused with one in another state.
APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Consequences of growing up poor. A philosophical essay on probabilities.
Original work published When you cite a republished work, like the one above, work in your text, it should appear with both dates: The battered child 5th ed. University of Chicago Press. When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp. This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except for newspapers.
Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. Dictionary of the history of ideas Vols. In The new encyclopedia britannica Vol. List the source the work was discussed in: Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches.
Psychological Review, , Give the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. In the text, use the following citation: Essays in urban transportation Doctoral dissertation, Boston College, Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 , A.
National Institute of Mental Health. Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders 2nd ed. Proceedings from CSCL ' Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses. Title of Online Periodical, volume number issue number if available.
Retrieved month day, year, from http: For People Who Make Websites, Retrieved May 2, , from http: Title of Journal, volume number. A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights.
Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved February 20, , from http: Use "Electronic version" in brackets after the article's title. Power through appointment [Electronic version]. Social Science Research, 29 , When referencing material obtained from an online database such as a database in the library , provide appropriate print citation information formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work.
Then add information that gives the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database. This will allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number in parentheses at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required.
For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see page of the Publication Manual. A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8 3. See The Learning Centre guides to various citation styles. Remember to list all the books and articles you use for the essay in a Reference List. This is a list of all works cited in your essay, and should be the final page. Skip to main content. Sign on Search Menu.
Jobs and career portal. International students Disabilities New students. Accommodation Health services Sport and gym. The basics Print to PDF. See Plagiarism and academic integrity Make sure you are familiar with the referencing style your faculty or school requires.
See The Learning Centre guides to various citation styles Reference lists Remember to list all the books and articles you use for the essay in a Reference List. Essay and assignment writing.
Referencing the Essay Referencing is a system that allows you to acknowledge the contributions and work of others in your writing by citing your sources. A feature of academic writing is that it contains references to the .
As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph.
Database of example referencing essays - these essays are the work of our professional essay writers and are free to use to help with your studies. List of References: Create your list of references on its own page after the last page of your text. Center the title References one inch from the top of the page. Center the title .
Facebook Page APA Referencing Guide Example APA Style Essay Professional Referencing Services All of the professional writing services provided by UK Essays include full research and referencing in a style of your choosing. The following winning essay was submitted in by a UK higher education student for an essay writing competition sponsored by the LearnHigher Centre of Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) network. The set title was ‘What is the point of referencing?’, and there was a maximum word limit.