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Step 9: Research Paper Rough Draft

12.1 Creating a Rough Draft for a Research Paper

❶Paraphrasing Sources When you paraphrase material from a source, restate the information from an entire sentence or passage in your own words, using your own original sentence structure. You will cite sources within the body of your paper and at the end of the paper in your bibliography.

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The Structure of a Research Paper


If your instructor doesn't give you a deadline for your rough draft, set your own deadline for when you will have it completed, giving yourself enough time to create your raw material, reshape it into multiple drafts and create the final version.

If you can't immediately think of the perfect way to hook your reader's attention, don't waste time staring at the blinking cursor on your computer screen. Instead, move on to a section of the essay that you know you can get on paper right now. This might mean composing the body paragraph you feel you have the most evidence for or drafting the part of the essay that you're most interested in exploring.

Because the introduction is usually the hardest part to write, many authors actually leave it until the end so they can structure it to fit the rest of the essay. Kori Morgan holds a Bachelor of Arts in professional writing and a Master of Fine Arts in creative writing and has been crafting online and print educational materials since She taught creative writing and composition at West Virginia University and the University of Akron and her fiction, poetry and essays have appeared in numerous literary journals.

The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language. Don't Aim for Perfection Your ultimate goal may be to get an "A" on your paper, but even the best writing begins with raw material. Write From an Outline Getting your ideas written down may be your primary goal, but crafting an outline will make your rough draft more useful as you move through the revision process. Don't Procrastinate A rough draft isn't something you write the night before an assignment is due and then hand in the next morning.

Write out of Order If you can't immediately think of the perfect way to hook your reader's attention, don't waste time staring at the blinking cursor on your computer screen. Tips on Writing a Rough Draft.

About the Author Kori Morgan holds a Bachelor of Arts in professional writing and a Master of Fine Arts in creative writing and has been crafting online and print educational materials since Accessed 14 September How to Write a Rough Draft. Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name. English Essay Prewriting Techniques. Having strong transitions also helps ensure that those who read your work - whether it is a professor or one of your peers - will have less trouble understanding your thought process.

Clarity is the name of the game here, and a surefire way to achieve that clarity is by making sure your transitions are straightforward. Furthermore, your writing should be clear and uncomplicated. Even if you're writing a scholarly paper, there is no need to get caught up in using jargon or buzzwords in the name of sounding smart or "in the know".

Use the appropriate vocabulary and lingo for whatever topic you're writing about, but make a concerted effort to keep your sentences from being too confusing. A big part of this is always using the active voice while you write. This simply means to establish that, within your sentences, the subject is performing the action, as opposed to the action happening to the subject as a result of the object.

An easy way to detect usage of the passive voice is to look for words denoting the past tense, such as were or was. For example, "The rations were served to the refugees by aid workers. Maintaining the active voice throughout your rough draft will make the process of revision much easier, since you'll have less line-by-line fine tuning to complete if your sentences are already written using the active voice.

When writing your rough draft, the most important thing to keep in mind is that the goal of an introduction is to capture the attention of your readers, then to give them a primer on what you'll be discussing in detail throughout your essay. As such, you need to make sure that you have a few strong, captivating opening sentences that address your topic without giving too much away, followed by clear, cohesive information on what exactly you'll be expounding upon in your writing.

Your thesis will be central to the construction of your introduction, as it must be presented here for the first time. Along with a strong thesis, a good introduction in your rough draft will briefly elaborate on the specific points you'll be making in each body paragraph, providing a general overview of what is to come later in the paper. In any rough draft, the body paragraphs should be where you focus the brunt of your energy. Since these are the parts of your essay where you're defending your thesis statement, you must first and foremost make sure that you're providing the reader with enough supporting information and research for every nuance or tangent branching off of your main idea that you incorporate in the final paper.

While you can rearrange the sections of your paper as you need to later on, the rough draft is an excellent time to simply dump your information into the appropriate body paragraph, then provide your own analysis. This strategy will help you give the paper some semblance of what it will ultimately look like by the time you have finished the revision process.

You'll also be able to manage the flow of your paper better by following this method; you'll see firsthand how your ideas interlock and play off each other, ensuring that you maintain your point of view without sacrificing smoothness and clarity.

Don't cut corners on your rough draft-- use proper punctuation, grammar, and style. It will save time when it comes to polishing the paper during the review process. While it may be tempting to avoid being expansive with your words during the rough draft and write short paragraphs instead, avoid falling into this trap. The rough draft deserves your full attention, and that means developing your notions in this round of writing.

There is no place for underdeveloped ideas in the rough draft. If you find yourself having trouble making a point in your rough draft, that's a good sign that you either need to find more research to back up the claim or argument you are presenting, or that you simply need to toss that point and move on to the more relevant sections of your essay.

The conclusion of your rough draft should serve a couple of different purposes. Most importantly, the conclusion needs to effectively summarize the ideas you discussed throughout your entire essay. This generally means covering the information in a way similar to how you already did in your introductory paragraph, so be sure that you're not aping yourself too much.

While there is certainly a degree of rehashing that occurs, make sure that you're striving to tie together the points you made previously, rather than simply presenting them again. Restate your thesis and show how the ideas you brought up in your body paragraphs directly relate to and answer the questions it raised in your introduction.

With a strong rough draft, the revision process becomes a snap. Don't ignore the importance of writing well in the rough draft, but also keep in mind that perfection is not the goal here. At the end of the day, this draft is not what you'll be turning in to your professor.

The rough draft is for you, the writer. It provides a dense foundation with room to grow, and should be written with care. Ultius is the trusted provider of content solutions for consumers around the world. Go to Homepage current My Account my. Core offerings Browse by service type Start your search By selecting a service type.


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Rather than aiming high on your rough draft, use it as an opportunity to explore, organize and structure your thoughts into paragraphs. Since you'll eventually revise your draft, it's likely that much of it won't survive in the final version of the essay.

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A rough draft is "a late stage in the writing process". 1 It assumes that you have adequate information and understanding, are near or at the end of gathering research, and have completed an .

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Before you begin to write your research paper rough draft, you have some decisions to make about format, or how your paper will look. As you write, you have to think about presenting your ideas in a way that makes sense and holds your readers’ interest. Creating a Rough Draft for a Research Paper by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike .

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The rough draft is the best time to double check that your paper and the arguments, points, or clarifications made within it all follow sensible logic. Ideas must be given breathing room and allowed to develop naturally as the essay goes on.