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Want to get in touch? Use the form below! In recent years, however, more stress has been placed on improving means of disposal of the solid residues from the municipal treatment processes. The basic methods of treating municipal wastewater fall into three stages: The handling and disposal of solid residues can account for 25 to 50 percent of the capital and operational costs of a treatment plant.
The characteristics of industrial waste waters can differ considerably both within and among industries. The impact of industrial discharges depends not only on their collective characteristics, such as biochemical oxygen demand and the amount of suspended solids, but also on their content of specific inorganic and organic substances. Three options are available in controlling industrial wastewater. Control can take place at the point of generation in the plant; wastewater can be pretreated for discharge to municipal treatment sources; or wastewater can be treated completely at the plant and either reused or discharged directly into receiving waters.
Agriculture, including commercial livestock and poultry farming, is the source of many organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater. These contaminants include both sediment from erosion cropland and compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen that partly originate in animal wastes and commercial fertilizers.
Animal wastes are high in oxygen demanding material, nitrogen and phosphorus, and they often harbor pathogenic organisms. Wastes from commercial feeders are contained and disposed of on land; their main threat to natural waters, therefore, is from runoff and leaching.
Control may involve settling basins for liquids, limited biological treatment in aerobic or anaerobic lagoons, and a variety of other methods. Ninety-five percent of all fresh water on earth is ground water. Ground water is found in natural rock formations.
These formations, called aquifers, are a vital natural resource with many uses. In rural areas this figure is even higher. Eighty one percent of community water is dependent on ground water. Some examples are leaking underground storage tanks and municipal landfills. Several forms of legislation have been passed in recent decades to try to control water pollution.
In , the Clean Water Act provided 50 billion dollars to cities and states to build wastewater facilities. This has helped control surface water pollution from industrial and municipal sources throughout the United States. When congress passed the Clean Water Act in , states were given primary authority to set their own standards for their water. This essentially means that state beneficial uses must be able to support aquatic life and recreational use.
Because it is impossible to test water for every type of disease-causing organism, states usually look to identify indicator bacteria.
One for a example is a bacteria known as fecal coliforms. Figure 1 shows the quality of water for each every state in the United States, click on the US link. These indicator bacteria suggest that a certain selection of water may be contaminated with untreated sewage and that other, more dangerous, organisms are present. These legislations are an important part in the fight against water pollution. They are useful in preventing Envioronmental catastrophes. The graph shows reported pollution incidents since If stronger legislations existed, perhaps these events would never have occurred.
Estimates suggest that nearly 1. With over 70 percent of the planet covered by oceans, people have long acted as if these very bodies of water could serve as a limitless dumping ground for wastes. Raw sewage, garbage, and oil spills have begun to overwhelm the diluting capabilities of the oceans, and most coastal waters are now polluted. Beaches around the world are closed regularly, often because of high amounts of bacteria from sewage disposal, and marine wildlife is beginning to suffer.
Perhaps the biggest reason for developing a worldwide effort to monitor and restrict global pollution is the fact that most forms of pollution do not respect national boundaries. The first major international conference on environmental issues was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in and was sponsored by the United Nations UN.
This meeting, at which the United States took a leading role, was controversial because many developing countries were fearful that a focus on environmental protection was a means for the developed world to keep the undeveloped world in an economically subservient position.
In addition to attempting to achieve scientific consensus about major environmental issues, a major focus for UNEP has been the study of ways to encourage sustainable development increasing standards of living without destroying the environment. At the time of UNEP's creation in , only 11 countries had environmental agencies. Ten years later that number had grown to , of which 70 were in developing countries. Water quality is closely linked to water use and to the state of economic development.
By the turn of the century, cities in Europe and North America began building sewer networks to route domestic wastes downstream of water intakes. Development of these sewage networks and waste treatment facilities in urban areas has expanded tremendously in the past two decades.
However, the rapid growth of the urban population especially in Latin America and Asia has outpaced the ability of governments to expand sewage and water infrastructure. While waterborne diseases have been eliminated in the developed world, outbreaks of cholera and other similar diseases still occur with alarming frequency in the developing countries.
Eutrophication of surface waters from human and agricultural wastes and nitrification of groundwater from agricultural practices has greatly affected large parts of the world.
Acidification of surface waters by air pollution is a recent phenomenon and threatens aquatic life in many area of the world. In developed countries, these general types of pollution have occurred sequentially with the result that most developed countries have successfully dealt with major surface water pollution. In contrast, however, newly industrialized countries such as China, India, Thailand, Brazil, and Mexico are now facing all these issues simultaneously.
Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt life on our planet to a great extent. Congress has passed laws to try to combat water pollution thus acknowledging the fact that water pollution is, indeed, a seriousissue.
But the government alone cannot solve the entire problem. It is ultimately up to us, to be informed, responsible and involved when it comes to the problems we face with our water.
In our yards, we must determine whether additional nutrients are needed before fertilizers are applied, and look for alternatives where fertilizers might run off into surface waters. We have to preserve existing trees and plant new trees and shrubs to help prevent soil erosion and promote infiltration of water into the soil. Around our houses, we must keep litter, pet waste, leaves, and grass clippings out of gutters and storm drains. These are just a few of the many ways in which we, as humans, have the ability to combat water pollution.
As we head into the 21st century, awareness and education will most assuredly continue to be the two most important ways to prevent water pollution.
The Importance of Rewriting Storm Water Regulations. Danielle Nielsen. Goochland High School. Abstract. This paper observes the negative and harmful effects of water pollution and storm water runoff on the environment and the surrounding community.
Research Papers on the Problem of Water Pollution Water Pollution Problem Research Papers delve into an example of an order placed on giving a description of the problem and how it started and possible plans that would alleviate the problem.
Water Pollution Research Papers Several unique environmental factors influence the growing problem of pollutants in the water systems throughout the United States. Research papers on water pollution can focus on any specific area domestically or internationally and are custom written at Paper Masters. Water pollution in China is a serious problem. It threatens the health and well being of humans, plants, and animals and it is one of most common types of territorios-luchas.tk paper will outline the negative affects of water pollution in Lake Tai that is caused by industries in China and the effects that it has on surrounding communities. The Chinese government is aware of the pollution problem.
Water Pollution Research Paper. It's essential because unlike other nutrients, water isn't stored in the body. Typically, everyday, we lose around 10 cups of water, . Research Paper: Water Pollution This is a long research paper about water pollution. It isn't about my project, it is just related to it. You don't have to read all of it.