There are no coincidence not only between races and ethnic groups, but also between the races, and language families. And, finally, the third racism form implies that the social classes were divided in superior and inferior races.
The representatives of the dominant class are superior race, and other classes are inferior. This racism form can be called social class racism, or in other words socio-racism.
All these forms were not only closely related to each other, but also often mutually intertwined. In almost every racist concept the elements of real-racial racism, ethnic racism, and socio-racism peacefully coexisted. As any false concept, racism was based on exaggerating and absolutisation of certain facts of reality that made the racist concept seem true.
For example, it is fact that some people are more gifted by nature and others are less gifted. It is fact that in class society there is division among people in educational level, cultural level and so on.
There is the concept of cultural relativism , according to which all the human cultures are absolutely equal and they can not be divided into lower inferior and higher superior. Modern racist concepts appeared only in the 19th century in the USA.
They were created to justify the slavery of blacks. The times of the struggle for equal rights for blacks and whites are already gone. The last mass action against the racism was in and it ended in bloodshed. But even half a century later there are still racist problems in the USA. But one hundred years later, in , the enthusiastic crowd listened to speeches of Martin Luther King. The same year was enacted a law, which allowed Afro-Americans to participate in all elections in the United States.
Despite this fact racism still divides American society. In black taxi chauffeur was killed by white policeman. In four policemen beat an innocent African-American driver. These and other events led to numerous mass protests and to people deaths. Racism still regularly becomes a subject of heated debates. Despite numerous acts of civil disagreement, the police officer was later acquitted.
In summer in Texas white policeman shot year-old Michele Braun. A wave of protests this time swept all the United States. And racism again became urgent problem of American society.
Racism in the USA is very vexed problem. Racial discrimination is still widespread in the USA, and today all the citizens, blacks and whites, must follow what they say and do, because any action, even the most innocent, may be misunderstood and treated as crime based on racial hatred. William Ferris, a researcher from the Center for the Study of the South at the University of North Carolina noticed that racism is like cancer — it can not be cured completely, you can only achieve a remission.
So the country needs many years, decades and even centuries to change the situation. Some of the above-mentioned facts you probably have already heard, some of them were new for you. The Basque racism, in turn, is a reaction to Spanish racism: Africans suffering drought, famine, plague and war have claimed that racism obstructs U. Patterns of racism change over time. In the early days of the U. Both World Wars heightened racism toward "Krauts" in the U.
Tibetan exiles fleeing the racism of the Chinese invading Tibet found racist treatment in many host countries, too. Islamic students in non-Islamic countries have often experienced racism; it has gotten worse as the actions of Islamic extremists in the mid-East gain more attention.
A more universal definition of racism is "Prejudice or discrimination by one group toward others perceived as a different 'race', plus the power to enforce it. Prejudice that remains an attitude can be emotionally painful and demoralizing, but it is not racism until it is put into action.
The actions of individuals, in turn, are harmful to the degree that they are supported by power. Imagine, for example, that a Muslim applied to rent an apartment from a Hindu landlord. If the landlord hates Muslims personally but rents the apartment and treats the tenant on an equal basis with any other in charging rent, maintaining the apartment, etc, that is an example of prejudice but not of racism. If the landlord refuses to rent the apartment to a Muslim, the landlord's action is individual racism, but can be only a temporary setback if it is not supported by the society.
If, however, the rest of the tenants and neighbors support the landlord's decision, if no local media find it to be news, if the applicant finds no official avenue for appeal or redress, that is institutionalized racism. Historically, almost every group of human beings who managed to cultivate a cultural identity did so partly by defining themselves as better than any other group, setting sharp boundaries to how much they would interact with other groups including intermarriage and limits to how much of their resources and power they would share.
Natural obstacles provided all the hostility to invaders they needed; the people themselves could be generous and hospitable to the survivors, who often ended up absorbed into the tribe. This behavior has changed, however, in the rare times when such a group has found itself in a position of power.
Defenders of "racism" who seldom call it "racism" have put forward several motivations: Opponents analyze the motivations of racism differently: Whatever the roots of racism may be, it tends to perpetuate itelf.
A group of people are defined as "lesser" and denied access to resources, then the results of such denial are used to justify defining them as "lesser.
While racism has ancient and complex historical roots, there is also evidence that anti-racism is not solely a product of "modern enlightenment. It is, in fact, the ever-shifting pattern of alliances, invasions, migrations, intermarriages and cross-cultural fusions that makes the whole concept of scientifically categorized "races" scientifically suspect and, increasingly, outright rejected.
One of the historical high points of racial tolerance was Moorish Spain, when Jews, Arabs and Spaniards together forged a remarkable culture. This history is cited by Basque nationalists to justify their own racism, claiming that Spanish blood is "contaminated" with Jewish and Arab ancestry, and only the Basque region stayed "pure.
There are several methods used to reduce racism and promote tolerance. These include education, changing the attitudes of both "oppressed" and "oppressor"; legal and political change, enforcing equality until it becomes normative behavior; and change to social structures believed to be the root causes of racism.
All of these methods include a belief that as more "others" are included in social institutions and power structures, familiarity itself will erode fear and stereotypes.
Some believe that racist behavior stems from racist attitudes and beliefs that can only be changed on the individual level, in individual minds and hearts.
Tactics here include public education and changing portrayals of racist minorities in the media, as well as individuals speaking up against demeaning language, jokes, and use of stereotypes, as well as racist violence and racial discrimination. A corollary to changing the attitudes and beliefs of racists is changing the attitudes and beliefs of people who have been targeted by racism, a refusal to accept being demeaned or discriminated against.
Legal and Political Change. Others believe that racist individuals are the product of a racist society; that the legal and political system must be changed first before social and individual change can follow. The great civil rights campaign in the U. Still others search for connecting causes at the root of racism, sexism, heterosexism, classism, agism, religious intolerance and all other forms of discriminatory behavior, in hopes that addressing the root causes will create the most social change.
One argument proposed by the radical left is that all social discrimination and oppression is the result of an exploitative economic system. Any economic system that creates Haves and Have-Nots will sooner or later create racist justifications for maintaining the status of the Haves over the Have-Nots. According to some on the radical left, the few who exploit the labor and resources of the many now promote social divisions as a "divide and conquer" strategy.
By turning men against women, Black against White, Christian against Muslim, Arab against Jew, young against old, etcetera, they disguise the fact that the true battle is Corporations Against Everybody. By this argument, a truly socialist economic system will result in eliminating racism and all other -isms. Libertarians and the followers of Ayn Rand have claimed that a " Real Capitalism" would eliminate such social evils; Democrats and Republicans both claim that a " Real Democracy" will eliminate racism; the Christian Right claims that a real i.
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