Add some transition words then , however , also , moreover that help with the overall structure and flow of the summary. And once you are actually putting pen to paper or fingers to keys! Make sure that you have correctly cited anything directly quoted from the text. Also check to make sure that your text does not contain your own commentary on the piece.
Once you are certain that your summary is accurate, you should as with any piece of writing revise it for style, grammar, and punctuation. If you have time, give your summary to someone else to read. This person should be able to understand the main text based on your summary alone. What are book summaries? A summary by definition is something that is comprehensive yet brief. A book summary, therefore, consists of the most important elements of a work. Good book summaries also capture essential elements about the central characters and the setting or settings in which the action unfolds.
When you have read a well-written summary, you ought to be able to say in your own words what the book is generally about, who the main characters are, and where it takes place.
Imagine going to a bookstore or a library. You might have forgotten the name of the book, but you can recall enough of the pertinent information to help the clerk or librarian find the book for you. Instead, focus on really understanding what the author is saying. This might mean that you need to read one sentence or paragraph more than once. You might also want to reread the whole piece. Write down what you think the main point of the piece is. This will help you start to put the piece's arguments in your own words.
You can also ask yourself what point or points or themes come up throughout the entire piece. The title can also give you a tip as to the main point of the piece. So if you notice that love - discussions or descriptions of it, for example - come up a lot, one of the main points of the piece is probably love. Reread the piece, taking notes on the major points of it. Once you know for sure what the author's main point is, reread the piece, looking for the ways they support that point.
You can find supporting material by looking for details that refer to the title, surprises in the argument or plot, repetition, or a lot of attention to detail. Write down each time something like this occurs. In that case, you wouldn't just read what the author wrote. Do the same when you're writing down the major points in your own words. Don't focus on the evidence that the author uses to support those points. You only need to know what they're arguing.
So, for example, say the author's main argument is: Civil Rights Movement actually began in the s. You only need to note the black women's boycott, not the examples of that boycott that the author uses. Focus instead on the major plot points and the main motivator for those points. Don't include everything that happens to the character along the way. Work from memory to write the main point of each section.
Without looking at your notes, write a first draft that includes the main point of each section in your own words. Not doing this is academic plagiarism, and it can get you in a lot of trouble. Make sure you format the quote correctly! Instead, summarize what the original author said and retain their tone and point of view.
You can say something like, "Hamlet is a man of thought, rather than action," instead of saying, "Why doesn't Hamlet do something once in a while? Use language appropriate to a summary. Reread the draft you wrote from memory against your notes. Take your notes out and compare them to your from-memory draft.
Present the summary in chronological order. Rather than jumping around to different parts of the story or article, you should explain what happened in the sequence that it happened.
This is especially important for summarizing works of fiction. Sometimes in an article or book, the author might make the same point multiple times as a way to underline their main points.
Add transitions where necessary. When you revise, make sure that you connect each paragraph to the next, and back to the main point. You can say something like, "Although some colonists believed that taxes should entitle them to representation in Parliament, the author also argues that other colonists supported the Revolution because they believed they were entitled to representation in heaven on their own terms.
Check for grammatical and spelling errors. Once you've finished revising the arguments in your draft, check the little things. Make sure there are no spelling or grammar mistakes. Look for any additional or missing punctuation and correct that as well. Don't use spell-checker for spelling errors. It will catch if you spell something wrong, but not if you use the wrong spelling of a word. For example, it won't catch that you used "there" when you meant "their. Give a full reference for this citation at the end of the summary see 6.
For a one-paragraph summary , discuss each supporting point in a separate sentence. Give explanations for each supporting point, summarizing the information from the original. For a multi-paragraph summary , discuss each supporting point in a separate paragraph. Introduce it in the first sentence topic sentence. The first major area in which women have become a powerful force is politics.
Use discourse markers that reflect the organization and controlling idea of the original, for example cause-effect, comparison-contrast, classification, process, chronological order, persuasive argument, etc. In a longer summary, remind your reader that you are paraphrasing by using " reminder phrases ," such as.
territorios-luchas.tk use paraphrase when writing a summary. If you do copy a phrase from the original be sure it is a very important phrase that is necessary and cannot be paraphrased. In this case put "quotation marks" around the phrase.
How to Write a Summary With thanks to: Swales, John M. and Christine B. Feat. Academic Writing for Graduate Students, Essential Tasks and Skills. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P, Preparing to Write: To write a good summary it is important to thoroughly understand the material you are working with.
Writing a Summary A summary is condensed version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original piece and does not have to be long nor should it be long. Guidelines for using IN-TEXT CITATIONS in a SUMMARY (or RESEARCH PAPER) Christine Bauer-Ramazani. The purpose of a summary is to give the reader, in a about 1/3 of the original length of an article/lecture, a clear, objective picture of .
The ability to write an effective summary might be the most important writing skill a college student can possess. You need to be able to summarize before you can be successful at most of the other kinds of writing that will be demanded of you in college, and it is an important part of note taking, too.